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Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Mike Thompson Global Leader of Refrigerant Strategy Trane, Ingersoll Rand, Thermo King The Future of Refrigerants: Where Do We Go.

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Presentation on theme: "Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Mike Thompson Global Leader of Refrigerant Strategy Trane, Ingersoll Rand, Thermo King The Future of Refrigerants: Where Do We Go."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Mike Thompson Global Leader of Refrigerant Strategy Trane, Ingersoll Rand, Thermo King The Future of Refrigerants: Where Do We Go From Here?

2 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Options For HVAC Refrigerants Fluorocarbons Natural Refrigerants Class 1 High ODP CFCs Non- Ozone Depleters (Kyoto Protocol) Ozone Depleters (Montreal Protocol) Class 2 Low ODP HCFCs Higher GWP Lower GWP R-11 R-12 R113 R-500 R-22 R-123 R-134a R-410A R-407C R-32 R-152a Propane Butane CO 2 Ammonia

3 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Timeline of Refrigerant Usage Continued use of recycled R-22, R-123 for developing countries Montreal Protocol Signed All CFC production Stopped (R-11,R-12) in developed countries No new equipment with R-22 No new R-22 for service No new equipment with R-123 in developed countries No new R-123 for service in developed countries, no HCFCs in new equipment in developing countries No HCFC production in developing countries Today Kyoto Protocol Signed No automotive use of R-134a in Europe Continued use of recycled CFCs Continued use of recycled R-22 Continued use of recycled R-123 No CFCs for developing countries Note: Included in the use of recycled refrigerants is also the use of stockpiled supplies of the refrigerant produced before the phase out date. In addition, there is no restriction on the importation of recycled and recovered supplies of refrigerants.

4 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Current Refrigerant Pricing January 2011 *Source:

5 Ingersoll Rand 2012 ©

6 Kyoto Protocol Greenhouse Gas Coverage s Six (6) Gases u Carbon Dioxide -- CO 2 u Methane -- CH 4 u Nitrous Oxide -- N 2 O u Hydrofluorocarbons -- HFCs u Perfluorocarbons -- PFCs u Sulfur hexafluoride -- SF 6 s Base Period u 1990 for CO 2, CH 4, and N 2 O u 1990 or 1995 for HFCs, PFCs, and SF 6

7 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © European HFC Restrictions s Denmark u General HFC ban in 2006 u HFC ban on HVAC equipment in 2007, except if the factory refrigerant charge is <10kg for cooling applications or <50 kg for heat pump applications s Austria u HFC ban on HVAC equipment, appliances and cars in 2008, except if factory charge is <20kg of refrigerant s Switzerland u Domestic Refrigeration HFC Ban u Air Conditioners HFC Ban u Mobile Air Conditioning HFC Ban – 2008 s F-Gases Directive on car air conditioning u No new vehicles containing F-gases, with a GWP greater than 150, in 2011 u Prohibit sale of vehicles containing F-gases, with a GWP greater than 150, in 2017

8 Ingersoll Rand 2012 ©

9 Country GHG Cap & Trade Legislation s Japan u GHG emissions reduction target of 60-80% by 2050 u Will start trial cap & trade program fall of 2009 u Govt pressure on GHGs, including HFCs, against industries desires s New Zealand Cap & Trade (Legislation in process) u Six gases including HFCs u All sectors s Australia Cap & Trade (Legislation in process) u Five gases u Separate HFC regulation (25% below 2000 levels by 2020) u HFC regulations begin in 2011 s European Union (27 countries) u CO2 only cap and trade, utilities & large industrials u HFCs under regulatory pressure

10 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © US Legislative Efforts u American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (aka: Waxman-Markey Bill) l Uses the average of 2004, 2005, 2006 production as a baseline for HFC production (weighted HCFC and HFC volumes) l 10% below average in 2012 l 33% below average in 2020 l 75% below average in 2030 l 85% below average in 2033 u US State Department Proposal to UNEP l Reduce to 2005 levels by 2014 l 20% reduction by 2017 l 30% reduction by 2020 l 50% reduction by 2025 l 70% reduction by 2029 l Developing countries to follow developed countries by 10 years

11 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Balance of Environmental Issues s Minimal Ozone Depletion (ODP) s Minimal Global Warming potential (GWP) s Best delivered efficiency (part and full load) s Short atmospheric life s Lowest possible leakage rate

12 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Environmental Impact of Refrigerants Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Atmospheric Life (years)Energy Efficiency (COP) Global Warming Potential (GWP)

13 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © ODP versus GWP CFC HCFC b 142b HFC a 143a 152a 227ea 236fa 245fa ODP (relative to R-11)GWP (relative to CO 2 ) J. M. Calm and G. C. Hourahan, Refrigerant Data Summary, Engineered Systems, 18(11):74-88, November 2001 (based on 1998 WMO and 2001 IPCC assessments) © JMC 2001

14 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Chiller Operating Pressure

15 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Number of Trane R-123 CenTraVacs 2768 Total Pounds of Charge3,547,612 lbs Total Pounds of Charge Added16,229 lbs/yr Annualized Total Loss Rate % Trane 1997 Survey Results Chiller Emissions Study in Impact on Global Ozone and Climate Study corroborated in Impact on Global Ozone and Climate From Use and Emission of (HCFC-123) By Calm, Wuebbles and Jain

16 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © What Is Important Over the Life of a Chiller? Cost of Energy (94.5%) First Cost of Chiller (5.18%) Cost of Initial Charge Of Refrigerant (0.25%) Refrigerant Added Over 30 years (0.04%)

17 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Emissions Energy Efficiency Focusing on Emissions and Efficiency is fundamental to doing whats right The Future

18 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Options For HVAC Refrigerants Fluorocarbons Natural Refrigerants Class 1 High ODP CFCs Non- Ozone Depleters (Kyoto Protocol) Ozone Depleters (Montreal Protocol) Class 2 Low ODP HCFCs Higher GWP Lower GWP R-11 R-12 R113 R-500 R-22 R-123 R-134a R-410A R-407C R-32 R-152a Propane Butane CO 2 Ammonia -Toxicity Concerns -Efficiency Concerns -Cost Concerns -ODP Concerns -GWP Concerns - Flammable GWP ODP GWP

19 Ingersoll Rand 2012 © Summary s All fluorocarbon refrigerants in use today are under legislative jeopardy s The balanced approach to refrigerant selection is the best way to protect the environment u Ozone Depletion u Global Warming u Energy Efficiency u Short atmospheric life u Low pressure (low tendency for leakage) s Chiller selection should focus on: u High Energy Efficiency u Minimal leakage rates u Superior technical design


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