Presentation on theme: "NON-STATE PROVISION OF WASH SERVICES IN EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC Andy Robinson, UNICEF EAPRO Consultant."— Presentation transcript:
NON-STATE PROVISION OF WASH SERVICES IN EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC Andy Robinson, UNICEF EAPRO Consultant
Content: WASH NSPs WASH in the East Asia and Pacific region Key features of NSP services Key issues around NSP services Challenges to improving NSP services Success factors
Water Supply in the EAP region Improved water supply coverage (JMP 2008 data) Regional averages: 50% Oceania 86% South-eastern Asia 89% Eastern Asia High range across region: 0%-60% unimproved WS 6%-100% piped WS High rural population
Sanitation in the EAP region Improved sanitation coverage (JMP 2008 data) Regional averages: 56% Eastern Asia 69% South-eastern Asia High range across region: 0%-64% open defecation 29%-100% improved san. High rural population
Equity in WASH services Water supply Lower access by poor Much lower service quality (time to collect, contamination, reliability, consumption) Sanitation Much lower access by poor Higher disease and economic burdens from unsafe disposal Source: UNICEF (2009) Status and trends in drinking water and sanitation in East Asia and the Pacific
WASH: Non-State Providers
Water Supply NSPs Piped network operators (utility supply, independent source) Point source operators (kiosks, standposts, boreholes, handpumps, tanks, bottled water producers) Mobile distributors (tankers, trucks, carts, carriers) Support services (drillers, well diggers, pipelayers, plumbers, mechanics electricians) Manufacturers (pipes, pipe fittings, water meters, pumps, generators, water tanks, precast concrete goods)
Network water and sewerage operators Waste management services Non-network water providers Toilet providers Who are the Non-State Providers? International Corporate International Corporate Formal Private Formal Private Informal Private Community Groups Community Groups Local NGOs Local NGOs International NGOs URBAN RURAL
WS: Volume of NSP services Small-scale water providers (World Bank, 2005) > 10% in Cambodia & Philippines > 30% in Vietnam > 50% in Indonesia Cambodia Small Towns Survey (BURGEAP, 2006) 17% paid for delivery by water vendors 3% connected to mini piped networks Metro Manila water supply (ADB, 2004) 30% using small-scale water providers (for some or all water) 50% urban poor households using small-scale providers Rural water supply in the Pacific (Willets et al, 2007) NGOs & FBOs providing primary water services in many areas (due to limited public and private capacity in remote island states)
SAN: Volume of NSP services Higher proportion of NSP services than water supply Septic tank coverage in urban areas (AECOM, 2010) 40% in the Philippines 63% in Indonesia 77% in Vietnam Private provision of new rural latrines (various, ) 65% in Timor-Leste (lower due to small market and large UN & NGO presence) 87% in Cambodia 88% in Lao PDR Sanitation entrepreneurs (BPD, 2008) 10% sanitation treatment and disposal by private providers 70% sanitation transport by private providers 90% household facility provision by private providers 40%-80% septic tank coverage in SE Asia
Key NSP issues
Lack of recognition or inclusion NSPs often excluded from sector activities: Little recognition of the volume of NSP services Few alternatives to NSP services in many low-income communities (i.e. critical services; quality affects health) Significant capacity and resources in NSPs High household investment in NSP services (both non-poor and poor households) Failure to include NSPs in sector activities affects scale, cost- effectiveness and sustainability of interventions.
Affordability Profiteering Serving the poor Uncertainty & risk High transport costs Rising block tariffs Lack of regulation Monopoly Flexible and convenient services Low quality + high prices = high profit? Low quality + high prices = high profit? Studies suggest that informal provider prices are often similar to public service prices (despite subsidies) … where competition exists.
Service quality Assumption that NSP service quality is low? Independent network WS comparable to utility WS satisfaction surveys (e.g. Manila) find few differences between NSP and other services Competition important to service quality? Water quality issues among all providers? (evidenced by complementary use of bottled water) Sanitation: service quality problems Badly designed septic tanks and latrines Limited knowledge of key hygiene principles?
Public finance Bulk of WASH public finance to non-poor? Utility water and sanitation subsidies (non-poor urban) Household latrine subsidies (non-poor rural) Septage management finance (non-poor urban, commercial) Ideology that expanding utility and CBO supply will (eventually) reach the poor … but a slow process in practice? Inadequate targeting (reliance on processes influenced by local political economy) Little public finance to support NSP services
Policy alignment NGOs, FBOs, CSOs, CBOs: Independent objectives, policies and constituencies Limited coordination and co-implementation (risk of undermining other provider interventions) Little sharing of resources and capacity Sustainability issues (linked to finance & objectives) Private sector (formal and informal): Prohibition ineffective (enforcement limited) Few incentives or support mechanisms
Challenges to improved NSP services High uncertainty and risk(asset seizure, corruption, rent seeking, lack of protection) Vested interests (public providers, politicians, profiteers) Administrative, legal and financial barriers (tenure, paperwork, fees, registration) Ineffective regulation(limited capacity, resources or authority for enforcement)
Success factors (1) Information (service mapping, evidence of costs of inaction, identification of high-risk areas) Pro-poor units and funds (explicit objectives, specialist skills, performance incentives) Asset protection and investment guarantees (for competent providers) Political support (high-level advocacy, evidence of investment benefits, outcome-based incentives) Phased approach (recognize capacity & resource constraints; willingness to pay; scale requirements) And ….
Success factors (2) Appropriate finance (demand-side, performance- based, objective targeting, and enabling environment) Effective regulation (encourage registration and self- regulation through incentives & social accountability) Professional support services (business development, capacity building, access to credit) Partnerships (local government facilitation + NGO skills + private sector efficiency)
In Summary Non-State Providers = diverse + complex group Important services (with potential for more) Enabling environments inadequate (for NSPs) NSPs hard to monitor and regulate Need a more incentive and performance-based framework (rather than regulations and penalties)
Thank You! Recent sanitation campaign in the Philippines: Check your septic tank or swallow the consequences Recent sanitation campaign in the Philippines: Check your septic tank or swallow the consequences