Presentation on theme: "Ghana Good governance for water, sanitation and hygiene services Achieving pro-poor decentralised services that are sustainable."— Presentation transcript:
Ghana Good governance for water, sanitation and hygiene services Achieving pro-poor decentralised services that are sustainable
Objectives of this presentation To address the following What is governance? What is good governance? What is water governance? What is local governance for water, sanitation and hygiene services? What are the key elements of a service? How is good governance put into practice for WASH services?
Definition of governance There are many definitions of governance Some place more emphasis on the role of government Others focus on the interaction between different role players and the need for co-operation Most definitions refer to decision making and how this takes place in relation to public goods and services Most recognise that governance is much more than government
What is governance? Governance is about the processes by which decisions are made and implemented It is the result of interactions, relationships and networks between the different sectors (government, public sector, private sector and civil society) to ensure optimal services It involves decisions, negotiation, and different power relations between stakeholders to determine who gets what, when and how.
Governance stakeholders Governance involves more than government - many stakeholders are involved All those with a legitimate interest in the outcome of a decision-making process have a right to be involved Stakeholders include communities, governmental organisations such as municipalities, utilities and other state owned entities, as well as service providers, capacity building organisations, NGOs, contributors of finance, the users of services and organisations that support them.
Systems of governance Systems of governance range from centralised, top down approaches to those that are more decentralised and participatory Increasingly WASH services are being decentralised Good governance for WASH services will therefore require participatory approaches that are shaped by stakeholders and their relationships at the local level
What is good governance? Good governance involves constructive co-operation between the different sectors where the result is: efficient use of resources responsible use of power, and effective and sustainable service provision Good governance emerges when stakeholders engage and participate with each other in an inclusive, transparent and accountable manner to accomplish better services free of corruption and abuse, and within the rule of law
Good governance? This photo is from South Africa, taken in October 2007 Police were brought in to manage community protest over poor services in the Western Cape
Good governance? Inclusive of all members of society Public finance for decentralization and accountability Strengthening civil society Protection of human rights Transparency, equity, accountability Promotion of democracy Decentralisation Gender mainstreamin g Fair legislation Responsive services Consensus about societys best interests Protection of the environment
Commitment to good governance Countries need to create their own good governance frameworks, through locally led participatory processes. Without good, or at least good enough, governance the fight against poverty cannot be won. (1) (1) Dfid, 2007: Governance, Development and Democratic Politics: DFIDs work in building more effective states
What is water governance? Water governance is the set of systems that control decision-making of water management and water service delivery Water governance is about who gets what water, when and how Water governance is profoundly political particularly where there is competition for limited water resources Systems of water governance usually reflect the political and cultural realities at national, provincial and local levels
More effective water governance Needs to address: Policy and legislative frameworks that protect water resources and ensure water for social and economic development Institutions for water management that facilitate participation of all stakeholders in a transparent, accountable, gender sensitive and equitable manner Decisions making mechanisms and regulation that achieve responsible use of political power, optimal use of resources, sustainable development and ecological sustainability
Good water governance requires a multi-dimensional approach Multi-jurisdictional engagement (local, municipal, provincial, national, international) Multi-purpose development Multi-sector planning Multi-sector management Multi-stakeholder institutions Multi-purpose support and regulation
What is local governance? Local governance is the set of: policy frameworks structures mechanisms relationships and decision making that takes place at the local level to deliver a service Local governance varies from country to country It depends upon the constitution, policy and legislation of a country The greater decentralisation, the more developed local governance frameworks are likely to be
National Framework: constitutional, policy, legislative and fiscal environment Enabling policy frameworks Mechanisms for participation, responsiveness, equity, inclusiveness, transparency, and accountability Collaborative stakeholder relationships Participatory decision making processes Inclusive implementation processes Efficient, effective and responsive services Good local governance
According to the Water Budget Speech all sorts of arrangements have been made to improve water governance which will allow communities to participate in their own development Getting governance right
What is local governance for water, sanitation and hygiene services? It is the decisions, processes and relationships governing WASH services at the local level It involves all stakeholders who have an interest or role in WASH services, including the public, private and civil society sectors Because water is key to development, local governance of WASH involves all those stakeholders involved in integrated development
Ghana Water Sanitation Hygiene National policy and legislative framework WASH Local Governance Local governance for WASH services
WASH governance is broader than water, sanitation and hygiene Integrated Development Water Electricity Sanitation and Hygiene Housing Transport Waste management Health WASH governance is part of governance for local integrated development
Good governance for sustainable WASH services Good governance for sustainable WASH services includes all the relationships, mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which stakeholders can mediate their interests, exercise their rights and obligations and make decisions for the delivery and provision of services
Good governance Advocacy and communication to promote WASH services so that communities can express demand and make choices Structures for participatory strategic planning where all stakeholders come together to make good decisions Financial mechanisms which include cost recovery and innovative methods of finance Sharing knowledge and information to empower local stakeholders to participate in problem solving, planning and strategic decision making and to improve their capacity to act for sustainable WASH services means:
Good governance Capacity building so that the capabilities, expertise and skills in local WASH institutions are retained and developed to improve the delivery of services. Mechanisms to ensure access to transparent, gender sensitive, and equitable services Ensuring an enabling environment for service provision, so that, service providers have access to support, such as skills development, specialist expertise, local supply chains, and other resources Systems and procedures for accountability, monitoring, evaluation and reporting for sustainable WASH services means:
Good governance for WASH services Capacity development Advocacy and communication Sector knowledge sharing and learning Multiple use services Sanitation, school sanitation and hygiene Monitoring and evaluation Support to community institutions Transparency gender and equity Financing and cost recovery Participatory and strategic approach to local governance Themes to achieve good governance for WASH services
How is good governance put into practice for WASH services? Good governance cannot be applied in a vacuum It needs to be applied to the different elements of WASH services – from policy, through to planning, to financing, to developing infrastructure, to providing the service and ultimately to regulation
It needs to address the entire service delivery life cycle Good governance from policy to sustainable services PlanningImplementation (infrastructure development) Policy Service Provision (sustainable services) The development of good policies require: participation, advocacy, communication, gender equity, transparency, monitoring and feedback, support, accountability, sector knowledge sharing, and so on. The same applies to planning services, deciding tariffs and subsidies, implementing capital projects and ultimately providing the service Financing
Delivering WASH services Finance Infrastructure Institutional arrangements for service provision RegulationPlanning Policies and bylaws (enabling environment) Key elements to deliver WASH services
Key elements to deliver a service An enabling environment which at the local level includes the policies and bylaws within which water, sanitation and hygiene services must be delivered Planning services (for the municipal / district / local area) Finance (capital and operating and setting tariffs) Infrastructure (development of new infrastructure and maintaining existing infrastructure) institutional arrangements for the ongoing provision of the services (a water service provider) regulating the service to ensure that it is provided according to the policy and bylaws.
Water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH) Finance Infrastructure Institutional arrangements for service provision RegulationPlanning Policies and bylaws (enabling environment) Capacity development Advocacy and communication Sector knowledge sharing and learning Transparency Monitoring and evaluation Support to community institutions Gender and equity Cost recovery and innovative finance Participatory and strategic approach to local governance Multiple use services