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Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge

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1 Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge
Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Chapter 11 Leadership

2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
Define the leadership and contrast leadership and management. Summarize the conclusions of trait and behavioral theories. Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support. Compare and contrast charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, and authentic leadership. Identify when leadership may not be necessary. Assess whether charismatic and transformational leadership generalize across cultures.

3 Leadership vs. Management
About coping with change Establish direction with a vision. Align resources and inspire workers to complete the vision. About coping with complexity Brings about order and consistency Draws up plans, structures, and monitors results. Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals.

4 Traditional Theories of Leadership: Trait Theories
Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics Extraversion has strongest relation to leadership Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience also strongly related to leadership Agreeableness and Emotional Stability are not correlated with leadership

5 Traditional Theories of Leadership: Behavioral Theories
Behaviors can be taught – traits cannot Leaders are trained – not born

6 Behavioral Theories: Ohio State Studies
Developed two categories of leadership behavior: Initiating Structure Consideration Attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals Concern for followers’ comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction

7 Behavioral Theories: University of Michigan Studies
Developed two dimensions of leadership behavior: Oriented Production Employee Emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job: people are means to an end Emphasize interpersonal relations and accept individual differences

8 Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid®
Combination of Ohio State and University of Michigan studies: Concern for Production Concern for People Try to emphasize BOTH

9 Attempts to match leadership style with work conditions:
Contingency Theories Attempts to match leadership style with work conditions: Fiedler Model Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

10 Fiedler Leadership Model
Least-Preferred Co-worker (LPC) determines leadership style (fixed trait) Relationship oriented Task oriented Match leader’s style with degree of situational control: Leader-member relations Task structure Position power

11 Fiedler Model: Matching Leaders to Situations
Either change leaders or the situation to improve effectiveness

12 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Leaders treat followers differently In-group members: Close to leader in attitude or personality Have more of the leader’s attention Get special privileges Have higher performance ratings Lower turnover Greater satisfaction

13 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model
While the leader does the choosing, it is the followers’ characteristics that drive the decision

14 Contemporary Approaches to Leadership
Leaders as communicators Framing the meaning of events Leaders inspire followers through words, ideas, and behaviors: Charismatic Leadership Transformational Leadership Authentic Leadership

15 Charismatic Leadership
Attributions of heroic leadership abilities when followers observe certain behaviors: Vision Personal Risk-taking Sensitivity toward Followers Extraordinary Behaviors

16 Charismatic Leaders: Born or Made?
Charisma can be created by: Developing an aura of charisma Be optimistic Be passionately enthusiastic Commute with body, not just words Drawing others in – inspire others Tapping into emotions – bring out the potential in others

17 How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers
Articulate an appealing vision Communicates a new set of values Model behaviors for those values Express dramatic behavior

18 Charisma and Situational Dependency
Charisma strongly correlated to high performance and satisfaction Best used when: Environment is uncertain or stressful Ideology is involved Most closely associated with upper level executives

19 The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership
Use organizational resources for personal benefit Remake companies in their own image Allow self-interest and personal goals to override organization’s goals

20 Transformational Leadership
Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization

21 Full Range of Leadership Model

22 Why Transformational Leadership Works
Creativity Followers are encouraged to be more innovative and creative Goals Followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to them Vision Engenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust

23 Transformational Vs. Charismatic Leadership
Both positively related to motivation, satisfaction, performance, effectiveness, and profitability Transformational leadership MAY be a broader concept than charisma The two forms may be the same

24 Authentic Leadership: Ethics as the Basis for Leadership?
Authentic leaders know who they are, what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly Create trust Encourage open communication Socialized Charismatic Leadership

25 Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Attribution Theory of Leadership Performance outcomes are attributed to leaders actions Appearance has more to do with leadership than outcomes Substitutes and Neutralizers Organizational variables can neutralize the leader’s influence or act as substitutes for leadership Leader becomes irrelevant

26 Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
Selection: Personality tests for leadership traits Interviews to match relevant situation-specific experience to job situation Training: Train those willing to change their behavior Teach general management skills Teach charismatic and transformational leadership skills – greatest organizational outcomes result

27 Charisma and transformational leadership important in all
Global Implications GLOBE Leadership Project Results: Brazil – Leaders are participative and humane France – Bureaucratic, task-oriented, and autocratic Egypt – Participative but status-aware China – Initiating structure and consideration important: status differences but participation valued Charisma and transformational leadership important in all

28 Implications for Managers
Leaders influence group performance Leadership success depends somewhat on having “the right stuff” Leadership depends on the situation Transformational skills becoming more important Select and train based on traits and qualities

29 Keep in Mind… Leaders can influence a group toward the achievement of goals Best leaders are ethical and authentic in addition to being charismatic In most cultures, charisma and vision are valued – although their means of expression may differ

30 Summary Defined the leadership and contrasted leadership and management. Summarized the conclusions of trait and behavioral theories. Assessed contingency theories of leadership by their level of support. Compared and contrasted charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, and authentic leadership. Identified when leadership may not be necessary. Assessed whether charismatic and transformational leadership generalized across cultures.

31 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

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