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1 The Status of Women in Latin America: What is the Role of Social Institutions? Denis Drechsler OECD Development Centre Institut dÉtudes Politiques Paris.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Status of Women in Latin America: What is the Role of Social Institutions? Denis Drechsler OECD Development Centre Institut dÉtudes Politiques Paris."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Status of Women in Latin America: What is the Role of Social Institutions? Denis Drechsler OECD Development Centre Institut dÉtudes Politiques Paris 4 May 2007

2 2 Recently Elected Female Heads of State in the World Chile: M. BacheletFinland: T. Halonen Germany: A. MerkelLiberia: E. Johnson Sirleaf

3 3 Institutions and Development Development Growth Equity Gender Level 1 Institutions: Social norms; hardly moving Level 2 Institutions: slow moving; e.g. property rights Level 3 Institutions: cooperate governance Level 4 Institutions: Fast moving, capital flow controls Source: Williamson 2000

4 4 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Latin America? III The impact of social institutions on gender equality IV What can be done?V ConclusionVI

5 5 I) Gender equality matters… Gender equality = women and men have equal conditions for realising their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from economic, social, cultural and political development. Gender equality is an important goal in itself (MDG 3)… … and also contributes to the achievement of other objectives: - stimulate growth and reduce poverty - reduce inequities - contribute to child development

6 6 … but what determines it? Causalities between development and gender inequalities not clear 2 main schools of thinking - Modernisation-neoclassical approach - Feminist thesis Measurement problems: What? How?

7 7 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Latin America? III The impact of social institutions on gender equality IV What can be done?V ConclusionVI

8 8 II) The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) A new tool for researchers and policy makers Allows an analysis of obstacles to womens economic status Covers 161 economies and has around 60 indicators on gender discrimination Includes institutional variables that range from intrahousehold behaviour to social norms

9 9 Indicators affecting the Economic Role of Women Political Empowerment (C) e.g. seats in parliament held by women Social Institutions (A) e.g. Family Code, Physical Integrity, Civil Liberties, Ownership Rights Economic Role of Women (D) e.g. share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Access to Resources (B) e.g. Health, Education Input VariablesOutput Variables Source: Own Illustration.

10 10 GID-Indicators: Social Institutions Physical IntegrityPrevalence of female genital mutilation Missing Women Legislation punishing acts of violence against women Family CodeMarriage before the age of 20 Acceptance of polygamy within a society Parental authority granted to father and mother equally Inheritance practices in favour of male heirs Ownership RightsWomens access to land ownership Womens access to bank loans Womens access to property other than land Civil LibertiesFreedom of movement Obligation to wear a veil in public

11 11 Early Marriages in India In the Rajgarh district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, a group of girl brides sit solemnly during celebrations that will culminate in their weddings later in the day. Source: Courtesy of the United Nations Children's Foundation

12 12 Violence against women Source: BBC NewsSource: AFP According to a UN report (2000), one in three woman in the world has been beaten, coerced into sex or abused in some other way, most often by someone she knows.

13 13 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Latin America? III The impact of social institutions on gender equality IV What can be done?V ConclusionVI

14 14 III) The Situation of Women in Latin America: A global and regional perspective Latin America and Caribbean – LAC: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Rep.; Ecuador; Guatemala; Honduras; Haiti; Jamaica; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Puerto Rico; Paraguay; El Salvador; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Venezuela

15 15 Global Perspective: Employment, Education and Health Care Important divide between: - Latin America, East Asia and Pacific and OECD countries - South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and the MENA region

16 16 Employment Source: GID Data Base

17 17 Education Source: GID Data Base

18 18 Education Source: GID Data Base

19 19 Health Care * of 100,000 life births Source: GID Data Base

20 20 Overall: Latin America performs comparatively well… Employment - Latin America and Caribbean region has twice as many women in the paid work force than MENA Education - 30% more girls are enrolled in primary education in Latin America than in sub-Saharan Africa Health Care - Significantly lower maternal mortality rate compared to South Asia

21 21 … but some regional disparities: e.g. women in paid labour Source: GID Data Base

22 22 …or: literacy rate as a share of men's literacy rate Source: GID Data Base

23 23 …or: Maternal mortality Source: GID Database

24 24 Regional disparities: An Income Phenomenon? High-Income Countries - HIC Puerto Rico Upper-Middle Income Countries - UMC Argentina; Chile; Costa Rica; Mexico; Panama; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Venezuela Lower-Middle Income Countries – LMC Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Cuba; Dominican Rep.; Ecuador; Guatemala; Honduras; Jamaica; Peru; Paraguay; El Salvador Low-Income Countries – LIC Haiti; Nicaragua

25 25 Employment Source: GID Data Base

26 26 Education Source: GID Data Base

27 27 Health Care Source: GID Data Base * of 100,000 life births

28 28 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Latin America? III The impact of social institutions on gender equality IV What can be done?V ConclusionVI

29 29 Social Institutions Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Data Base

30 30 IV) The Impact of Social Institutions on Gender Equality Modelling approach - (access to resources) = f (social institutions) + (log Y) + e t - (economic role of women) = f (access to resources) + (log Y) + e t - (economic role of women) = f (social institutions) + (log Y) + e t

31 31 Social Institutions and Female Participation in the Labour Market… Source: Jütting, Morrison, Dayton-Johnson, Drechsler (2006) GDP (Log income) Social Institutions (GID) GDI (UNDP) Observa- tions R-squared 5.2** (6.5) ** (-11.7) ** (9.1) (-0.5) -40.8** (-6.1) 11.7 (0.7) % of women in paid non- agricultrual labour force

32 32 …a clearly negative correlation Source: GID Data Base

33 33 …which is more pronounced than economic development Source: GID Data Base

34 34 Social institutions and educational attainment Source: GID Data Base

35 35 Average marriage age and women in paid labour Source: GID Data Base

36 36 Early Marriage Source: GID Data Base

37 37 Early marriage and GDP p.c. Source: GID Data Base

38 38 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Latin America? III The impact of social institutions on gender equality IV What can be done?V ConclusionVI

39 39 V) What can be done? Empowerment of women - More participation of women in decision making on community level (example: quota in India) Sex-disaggregated data collection Enforcement reform of legal structures - Monitoring systems to ensure changes Convince men of benefit of reforms - Men should get incentives to accept changes and in some cases compensation for potential losses

40 40 Barriers to change: Some important caveats Depth of tradition - Examples: polygamy, early marriage - Rural population remains attached to such traditions despite their legal interdiction Institutional change conflicts with mens interest - Examples: polygamy, repudiation - Inequality provides men with material advantages that they lose upon reform Limited enforcement of reforms - Example: Widely toleration of violence against women by police in northern states of India - Wide gap in performance between the publication of a law and its effective implementation

41 41 Gender equality is getting more and more attention… Women in Costa Rica demonstrated for equal rights on International Womens Day Source: AFP

42 42 …and a voice Women police officers in India have formed a national forum to fight sexual harassment and discrimination from their male colleagues. Source: BBC news

43 43 India's first computer- literate village Photo: M.S. Vinod At least one member of every family in the village there are 850 families has completed basic computer literacy training.

44 44 The Grameen phone scheme - 'Telephone Ladies' connect Bangladesh Grameen phone ladies provide villagers with a vital link to services such as hospitals and to relatives both at home and abroad, in a country with the lowest number of phones in South Asia.

45 45 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Latin America? III The impact of social institutions on gender equality IV What can be done?V ConclusionVI

46 46 VI) Conclusion Gender equality is key to development Role of social institutions overlooked Changes are possible in different settings Need to provide the right incentives Strategies should be flexible and adapted to levels of development and socio- economic context

47 47 Merci!

48 48 Further Literature Forsythe N., Korzeniewicz R.P. & Durrant,V. (2000). Gender Inequalities and Economic Growth: A Longitudinal Evaluation. Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 48(3), pp Jütting J., Morrisson C., Dayton-Johnson J. & Drechsler D. (2006). Measuring Gender (In)equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID), OECD Working Paper No Jütting J., Morrisson C., Dayton-Johnson J. & Drechsler D. (2006). The Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base, OECD Policy Insight No. 16. Klasen, S. (2002). Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development. The World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 16(3), pp. 315 – 373. World Bank (2001). Engendering Development through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voice. Washington D.C.: World Bank


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