Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Status of Women in Developing Asia: What is the Role of Social Institutions? Johannes Jütting OECD Development Centre Casa Asia Barcelona 30 March.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Status of Women in Developing Asia: What is the Role of Social Institutions? Johannes Jütting OECD Development Centre Casa Asia Barcelona 30 March."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Status of Women in Developing Asia: What is the Role of Social Institutions? Johannes Jütting OECD Development Centre Casa Asia Barcelona 30 March 2006

2 2 The Centre at the OECD Intellectual Autonomy Informal Dialogue Framework Capacity Building Staff: 45 Development Cluster of the OECD Sahel and West Africa Club (SAH) Development Centre (DEV) Development Assistance Committee (DAC)

3 3 Recently Elected Female Heads of State/Government in the World Chile: M. BacheletFinland: T. Halonen Germany: A. MerkelLiberia: E. Johnson Sirleaf

4 4 Words of caution This presentation - is based on a development economics perspective - cannot fully do justice to the variety of different situations between and within Asian countries - provides food for thought, instead of blueprint solutions for change

5 5 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia? III The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions IV What can be done? V Conclusion VI

6 6 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia? III The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions IV What can be done? V Conclusion VI

7 7 I) Gender equality matters… Gender equality = women and men have equal conditions for realising their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from economic, social, cultural and political development. Gender equality is an important goal in itself (MDG 3)… … and also contributes to the achievement of other objectives: - stimulate growth and reduce poverty - reduce inequities - contribute to child development

8 8 … but what determines it? Causalities between development and gender inequalities not clear 2 main schools of thinking - Modernisation-neoclassical approach - Feminist thesis Measurement problems: What? How?

9 9 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia? III The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions IV What can be done? V Conclusion VI

10 10 II) OECD Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) A new tool for researchers and policy makers Allows an analysis of obstacles to womens economic status Covers 162 economies and has 50 indicators on gender discrimination Includes institutional variables that range from intrahousehold behaviour to social norms

11 11 Indicators affecting the Economic Role of Women Source: Own Illustration. Economic Development GDP per capita Social Institutions Family Code Physical Integrity Civil Liberties Ownership Rights Economic Status of Women Labour Market Participation Access to Resources Health Education

12 12 GID-Indicators : Social Institutions Physical Integrity - Legislation punishing acts of violence against women - Prevalence of female genital mutilation Family Code - Marriage before the age of 20 - Acceptance of polygamy within a society - Parental authority granted to father and mother equally - Inheritance practices in favour of male heirs Ownership Rights - Womens access to land ownership - Womens access to bank loans - Womens access to property other than land Civil Liberties - Freedom of movement - Obligation to wear a veil in public

13 13 Early Marriages in India In the Rajgarh district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, a group of girl brides sit solemnly during celebrations that will culminate in their weddings later in the day. Source: Courtesy of the United Nations Children's Foundation

14 14 Violence against women Source: BBC NewsSource: AFP According to a UN report (2000), one in three woman in the world has been beaten, coerced into sex or abused in some other way, most often by someone she knows.

15 15 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia? III The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions IV What can be done? V Conclusion VI

16 16 III) The Situation of Women in Asia: a global, regional and country perspective South Asia - SA (7 economies): Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka East Asia and Pacific - EAP (17 economies): China; Fiji; Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Cambodia; Lao PDR; Myanmar; Mongolia; Malaysia; Philippines; Papua New Guinea; Korea, Dem. Rep.; Singapore; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Chinese Taipei; Viet Nam; Australia; Japan; Korea, Rep.; New Zealand OECD-East Asia and Pacific (4 economies): Australia; Japan; Korea, Rep.; New Zealand

17 17 Global perspective: employment, education and health care Important divide between: - East Asia and Pacific, Latin America and OECD countries - South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and the MENA region

18 18 Employment Source: GID Database

19 19 Education Source: GID Database

20 20 Education Source: GID Database

21 21 Health Care * of 100,000 life births Source: GID Database

22 22 Regional Perspective: South Asia versus East Asia and Pacific Employment - Female participation in the paid work force in South Asia is only half of the rate in East Asia and Pacific* Education - Important difference in tertiary education Health Care - Significantly higher maternal mortality rate

23 23 Employment Source: GID Database

24 24 Education Source: GID Database

25 25 Health Care * of 100,000 life births Source: GID Database

26 26 Country Perspective: Indonesia versus Pakistan Indonesia - Largest Muslim population in the world (about 210 million, 2004 = 88%) - GDP per capita ($ PPP) = ; GDP per capita growth = 3.7% - Employment: about one third of the total paid work force are women - Education: more than 90% of girls get primary education - Health Care: high maternal mortality Pakistan - 2 nd second most populous Muslim country in the world (about 157 million, 2005 = 96%) - GDP per capita ($ PPP) = ; GDP per capita growth = 4.4% - Employment: about one eighth of the total paid work force are women - Education: only half of the girls get primary education, almost none get tertiary - Health Care: maternal mortality twice as high as in Indonesia

27 27 Employment Source: GID Database

28 28 Education Source: GID Database

29 29 Health Care * of 100,000 life births Source: GID Database

30 30 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia? III The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions IV What can be done? V Conclusion VI

31 31 IV) The Roots of Gender Discrimination in Asia: Social Institutions Overall situation Ownership Rights Family Code Early Marriage

32 32 Social Institutions Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Database

33 33 Social Institutions and Womens Participation in the Labour Market Source: GID Database

34 34 Country Perspective: Two cases compared Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Database

35 35 Early Marriages in Asia Source: GID Database

36 36 Mean Age of Women at Marriage in Asian Countries Source: GID Database CountryYears Bangladesh (SA)19 Nepal (SA)19 India (SA)20 Pakistan (SA)21 Papua New Guinea21 Vietnam22 China23 Indonesia23 Korea, Rep.25 Sri Lanka (SA) 25 Australia29

37 37 Ownership Rights Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Database

38 38 Family Code Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Database

39 39 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia? III The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions IV What can be done? V Conclusion VI

40 40 V) What can be done? Empowerment of women - More participation of women in decision making on community level (example: quota in India) Sex-disaggregated data collection Enforcement reform of legal structures - Monitoring systems to ensure changes Convince men of benefit of reforms - Men should get incentives to accept changes and in some cases compensation for potential losses

41 41 Barriers to change: some important caveats Depth of tradition - Examples: polygamy, early marriage - Rural population remains attached to such traditions despite their legal interdiction Not in mens interest - Examples: polygamy, repudiation - Inequality provides men with material advantages that they lose upon reform Limited enforcement of reforms - Example: Widely toleration of violence against women by police in northern states of India - Wide gap in performance between the publication of a law and its effective implementation

42 42 Gender equality is getting more and more attention… Bangladeshi women take part in a protest demanding equal rights in Dhaka. Photo: AFP

43 43 …and a voice Women police officers in India have formed a national forum to fight sexual harassment and discrimination from their male colleagues. Source: BBC news

44 44 India's first computer-literate village Photo: M.S. Vinod At least one member of every family in the village there are 850 families has completed basic computer literacy training.

45 45 The Grameen Phone scheme - 'Telephone ladies' connect Bangladesh Grameen phone ladies provide villagers with a vital link to services such as hospitals and to relatives both at home and abroad, in a country with the lowest number of phones in South Asia.

46 46 Introduction: Why does gender equality matter? I A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID) II Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia? III The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions IV What can be done? V Conclusion VI

47 47 VI) Conclusions Gender equality is key to development Role of social institutions overlooked Changes are possible in different settings Need to provide the right incentives Strategies should be flexible and adapted to levels of development and socio-economic context

48 48 ¡Gracias por su atención!

49 49 Contact: Johannes Jütting OECD Development Centre Web: GID: database


Download ppt "The Status of Women in Developing Asia: What is the Role of Social Institutions? Johannes Jütting OECD Development Centre Casa Asia Barcelona 30 March."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google