2 Learning TargetsI can use a text book learning strategy in my classroom.I can give an oral summary of the SIOP model.
3 What do these teachers do that is helpful for ELLs? top_640x360_ccv2/ab/streaming/myeducati onlab/SIOP_GM_v2.1/C5M2_iPad.mp4 Note actions/activities that are helfpul to ELLS on a post-it note.
4 Share with a partnerDiscuss your notes with a partner.
5 Characteristics of effective instruction for ELLs… English is taught through academic contentLearning strategies needed to develop thinking skills and problem-solving abilities are taught EXPLICITLYContinuous support for staff developmentSource: ACQUIRING A SECOND LANGUAGE FOR SCHOOL, Directions in Language & Education National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education Vol. 1, No. 4, Fall 1995,Virginia P. Collier
6 Staff development emphasizes… activation of students' prior knowledge.respect for students' home language and culture.cooperative learning, interactive and discovery learning.intense and meaningful cognitive/academic development.ongoing assessment using multiple measures.Source: ACQUIRING A SECOND LANGUAGE FOR SCHOOL, Directions in Language & Education National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education Vol. 1, No. 4, Fall 1995,Virginia P. Collier
7 Sheltered Instruction (SI) SI provides second language learners with the means to develop academic and linguistic knowledge in their second language.
8 SI can be described as a melding of elements of second language principles and elements of quality instruction.
9 SI facilitates a high level of student involvement and interaction in the classroom.
22 Metacognitive Planning Monitoring Evaluating CALLA p. 62 Metacognitive: monitoring own comprehension thru self-questioning, taking corrective action if do not understandPlan: before beginning a taskSet goalsPlan the task sequencePlan how to accomplish the taskMonitor: While working on a taskCheck your progress on the taskCheck your comprehension Do I understand? If not, what is the problem?Check your productionEvaluate: After completing a taskAssess how well you accomplished the taskAssess how well you have used learning strategiesDecide how effective the strategies wereIdentify changes you will make the next time you have a similar task
23 Cognitive Resourcing Grouping Note-taking Elaboration of Prior KnowledgeSummarizingDeduction/InductionAuditory RepresentationImageryMaking InferencesCALLA p : Expand these through study groups / additional professional developmentResourcing:Use the dictionary, internet, reference materialsSeek out and use sources of informationNote-taking:Write important words and ideas while listening and reading.List ideas or word to include in speaking or writingPrior Knowledge:Use what you already know to help you do the taskMake associations between new and past knowledgeUse new information to clarify or modify your prior knowledgeSummarizing:Create a mental, oral, or written summary of informationAuditory Representation:Say or read aloud a word or sentence to help your understandSound outUse your mental tape recorder to remember sounds, or conversationsImagery:Use or create an actual or mental image to understand or represent informationUse or draw a picture or diagramMake Inferences:Use context and what you know to figure out meaning.Read and listen between the lineGo beyond the text to understand its meaning.
24 Social/Affective Questioning Cooperation Self -Talk CALLA p.63: Expand these through study groups / additional professional developmentQuestioning: Ask questions to get additional explanation, clarification, or verification.Cooperation: Work with others to complete tasks, build confidence, and give and receive feedback (cooperative learning).Self-talk: Reduce anxiety by reminding yourself of your progress; “Pat yourself on the back;” Tell yourself you can complete the task.
25 Strategies Have a name you and your students use Have clearly defined stepsPracticed regularly so they become automaticStrategies:Conscious, flexible plans a reader applies to a textTheir use implies awareness, reflection, and interaction between reader and author.Strategies are interrelated and recursive, not individual or sequential
26 Examples from Making Content Comprehensible MnemonicsSQP2RS — surveying, questioning, predicting, reading, responding, summarizingPENSGIST – Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text (Cunningham, 1982)Rehearsal strategiesGraphic organizersComprehension strategiesEchevarria, Vogt, ShortMCC, Making Content Comprehensible, p describes several techniques to use.Explain SQP2RS (squeepers) with PowerPoint from
28 Examples from Making Content Comprehensible MnemonicsSQP2RS — surveying, questioning, predicting, reading, responding, summarizingPENSGIST – Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text (Cunningham, 1982)Rehearsal strategiesGraphic organizersComprehension strategiesEchevarria, Vogt, ShortMCC, Making Content Comprehensible, p describes several techniques to use.Explain SQP2RS (squeepers) with PowerPoint from
29 ScaffoldingForm of support to bridge the gap between students’ current abilities and the intended goalSupport is more complete during the initial stages of learning but is decreased as there is less need for guidanceTypes:verbalproceduralinstructionalScaffold associated with Vygotsky’s notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Like training wheels on a bicycleNext 2 slides explain Procedural ScaffoldingAs a group use the graphic organizer in your packet to list examples of verbal, procedural, and instructional scaffolding. Higher levels might not give headings, but have students list scaffolding techniques and group them or another alternative would be to give techniques and have participants group them.Verbal scaffolding: teachers, aware of student’s English language proficiency level, use prompting, questioning, elaboration to help move students to higher language proficiency levels.Examples: paraphrasing, “think-alouds,” contextual definitionsProcedural scaffolding: how to utilize features of classroom, e.g., the use of grouping configurations to provide different levels of support to students as they develop greater levels of language proficiency and skills.Examples: individualized support, teacher-directed small-group interaction, cooperative groups, pairing students for peer assistanceInstructional scaffolding: enhance student learning, e.g., prepare students for content, assist in comprehension and organization of contentExamples: graphic organizers
30 Procedural Scaffolding Increasing Student IndependenceTeachModelPracticeApplyAccording to Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2000), teachers usean instructional framework that includes explicit teaching, modelingand practice that provide procedural scaffolding..Echevarria, Vogt, Short. (2000). Making Content Comprehensible, 87.
31 Procedural Scaffolding Student IndependenceWholeClassSmallGroupPaired/PartnerIndependentWorkProcedural scaffolding also refers to the use of groupingconfigurations that provide different levels of support tostudents as they gain greater levels of language proficiency andskills.More experienced learners assisting less experiencedEchevarria, Vogt, Short. (2000). Making Content Comprehensible, 87.
32 QuestioningQuestioning techniques can elicit responses from students that involve higher-order thinking skills regardless of language level.Handout: DPI’s sample questions connected to Marzano’s Dimensions of ThinkingUse the activity on strategies previously completed. Add higher order thinking questions. Use the handout on Marzano’s Dimensions of Thinking to help you.ORUse SIOP activity on page 43 of “Using the SIOP Model.”
33 Learning TargetsI can use a text book learning strategy in my classroom.I can give an oral summary of the SIOP model.