What is your teaching style? PPresentation PPractice PProduction
Focuses on a single point of grammar, or one function, usually presented in an appropriate context. In this stage the learner should become aware of the language point and understand its form and meaning Presentation
At this stage the practice is controlled. It focuses on the language item presented and is supposed to help the learners use the new item correctly in terms of form and meaning Practice
The learners have the opportunity to use the target language item more freely and flexibly. BUT often this stage does not work well: *Not free because forms are specified *OR Target form is not used at all Production
A) Find the manual and read it carefully B) Take everything out of the box and work it out by using it? C) Talk to someone else about how to set it up? If I give you the very newest modular furniture and you have to make it together, do you...?
A is a visual preference B is a tactile or kinaesthetic approach C is an auditory way
How do you sense the world? seehearfeelsmelltaste
Chinese students very strong at memorisation and seeing patterns (from learning ideographic writing system Hofstede 1986) and want to analyse everything in detail (Anglo American culture analytic style Brown 1987)
1. How did you feel doing this activity? 2. What language is being developed in this activity 3. What adaptations would you make if using this activity with your students
Learners use the target language for some communicative purpose rather than simply to practise using the language. There is a clear context for the language use and the learners language activity leads to an outcome or product. Task-based learning
The TBL classroom should : Have enough room for different activities to be taking place Allow students to work in groups in different parts of the classroom
Definitions we will need Task Activity Exercise Define the three terms for yourself and then see if you agree with your neighbour
Activity An activity is a general term describing what the learners are required to do at any one stage of a lesson. An activity may be, for example, a task or an exercise, a drill or a project.
Exercise An exercise is an activity that involves learners in manipulating the language. Closed exercises have one right answer only. Open exercises permit more than one right answer.
A language learning task Includes a workplan Focuses on meaning Gets learners using language to communicate, not to show teacher that they know a form Involves real-world processes of language use
A language learning task Can involve any of the four skills (but not all skills activities are tasks.) Engages cognitive processes. Learners choose the language to use to get the task done. Has a clearly defined communicative outcome. The outcome is non-linguistic. Its clear whether the task has been completed.
Today language forms are included by means of the task cycle: Pre-task Task Post-task
Pre-task 1. Can input language the learners need for the task, prepares and motivates the learners to perform the task. 2. Clear and short instructions, set signal for start and end or set time. 3. CCQ(concept checking question)
Task In this process, teacher is the monitor, listen and observe or give help if needed
Post-task Follow –up exercise Give relevant assignment for students to do after class.
As teachers, we should 1) Repeat the task Under same or different conditions 2) Reflect on the task What was good? How could it be improved? How interesting or useful was the task? 3) Language work -review of errors -consciousness-raising activity -practice exercises
Summary: TBL The focus is on making meaning, not practising forms Making meaning is purposefully directed towards an outcome or result A focus on forms can be included Tasks can be graded and supported