2The Coming of the Renaissance The Renaissance was a flowering of literary, artistic and intellectual development that began in Italy in the fourteenth century.It was inspired by the arts and scholarship of ancient Greece and Rome, which were rediscovered during the Crusades
3Key Characteristics of the Renaissance Religious devotion of the Middle Ages gave way to interest in the human being’s place on this earthUniversities introduced a new curriculum, the humanities, including history, geography, poetry, and languagesInvention of printing made books more availableMore writers began using the vernacular
4Figures of the Renaissance Mostly ItaliansDante, author of The Divine ComedyPetrarch, wrote lyric poetry in the form of sonnetsLeonardo Da Vinci, a painter, sculptor, architect, and scientistDa Vinci typifies a Renaissance man—a person of broad education and interests whose curiosity knew no bounds.
5The Age of ExplorationRenaissance thirst for knowledge lead to a great burst of exploration.Crusades opened routes to Asia soon monopolized by Italian merchants.Explorers from other nations searched for all-sea routes aided by compass and advances in astronomy.Culminated in Columbus’s discovery of the New World in colonization
6England in the Age of Exploration 1497—Italian-born John Cabot reached Newfoundland (an island off the coast of Canada) and perhaps the mainlandCabot laid the basis for future English claims in North America.
7The Protestant Reformation: Questioning the Catholic Church A growing sense of nationalism led many to question the authority of the church.Complaints:the sale of indulgencespayment to the church (like taxes)church leaders favored Mediterranean powers over northerly countriesthe educated questioned the Church teachings and hierarchy
8ErasmusDutch thinker whose edition of the New Testament raised questions about standard interpretations of the Bible.Focused attention on issues of morality and religionMorality and religion became the central concerns of the English Renaissance
9Martin LutherErasmus paved the way for the split in the Roman Catholic Church in 1517.German monk Martin Luther nailed a list of dissenting beliefs (“ninety-five theses) to the door of a German church.The intent was to reform the Catholic Church, but actually divided the church and introducing Protestantism.
10Results of the Protestant Reformation Swept through EuropeFrequent wars between rulers with different beliefsPersecution of Catholics and ProtestantsDivision of Protestants—Lutherans and Calvinists (Puritans and Presbyterian sects)
11Tudor England Tudor dynasty ruled from 1485-1603. Time of stability and economic expansionLondon a metropolis of 180,000 peopleMany saw the changes as a threat to the old familiar waysFeared new outbreaks of civil strife (War of the Roses)
12Henry VII First Tudor monarch Inherited an England depleted by civil warBefore his death in 1509, he rebuilt the treasury and established law and order.Henry VII restored the prestige of the monarchy and set the stage for his successors.
15Henry VIII Catholic (even wrote a book against Luther) Relationship with the Pope did not lastMarriage to Catherine of Aragon produced no male heirHenry tried to obtain an annulment to marry Anne BoleynThe Pope refused, but Henry married anyway
17Henry’s Break with the Church Henry’s defiance led to an open break with the Roman Catholic Church.The Act of Supremacy (1534) gave Henry full control of the Church in England and severed all ties with Rome.Henry became the head of the Anglican Church (the new Church of England).He seized Church property and dissolved the monasteries.
18The Aftermath Henry used ruthless measures to suppress opposition. He even had his former friend and advisor, Thomas More, executed, because More refused to renounce his faith.Henry married six times.His first two marriages (Catherine and Anne) produced two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.His third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son, Edward, who was still a frail child when Henry died in 1547.
20Edward VI Became King at 9; died a 15 (1553) Parliamentary acts during his reign changed England’s religious practices and sent England on its way to becoming a Protestant nation.English replaced Latin in church.The Anglican prayer book, Book of Common Prayer, became required in public worship.
22Bloody Mary Mary I, Edward’s half sister; a Catholic Mary restored Catholic practices and papal authority to the Church of England.Mary married her Spanish cousin, Phillip II, making England a part of the powerful Spanish state. (During this period of nationalism, many found her acts unpatriotic)Mary also persecuted Protestants: she ordered the execution of some 200 Protestants during her reign, strengthening anti-Catholic sentiment in England
25Elizabeth IAfter Mary’s five year reign, her half-sister, Elizabeth came to the throne.Elizabeth was the last of the Tudors, dying unmarried and childless.Elizabeth received a Renaissance education, became a patron of the arts, and Elizabethan came to describe the English Renaissance at its height.
26Elizabeth and the Church Ended religious turmoilReestablished the monarch’s supremacy in the Church of EnglandRestored the Book of Common PrayerInstituted a policy of religious moderation
27Foreign AffairsFrance and Spain, England’s two greatest rivals, often worked with Catholic factions in England.Both nations fought to dominate England.Elizabeth and her counselors played one side against the other, using offers of marriage as bait.This cleverness allowed England a period of peace and allowed commercial and maritime interests to prosper.
28Mary, Queen of ScotsElizabeth’s Catholic cousin, Mary Stuart; queen of Scotland by birth and next in line to the British throne (granddaughter of Henry VII)Catholics did not recognize Henry VIII’s marriage to Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth’s mother, and considered Mary Stuart the queen.Mary was a prisoner of England for 19 years and the center of numerous plots on Elizabeth’s life.Eventually Mary was convicted of plotting to murder Elizabeth and went to the block in 1587, a Catholic martyr.“In my end is my beginning”—Mary’s death led Catholic Spain to declare war on England.
31England vs. SpainSpain rejected English claims in America and resented the fact that English privateers had been attacking and plundering Spanish ships.Privateers like John Hawkins and Francis Drake operated “on their own,” but were really under the authority of Queen Elizabeth.
32The Spanish ArmadaAfter Mary’s execution, King Phillip II prepared a Spanish armada of 130 warships to attack England.In 1588, English sailors defeated the Armada in the English Channel.This event marked the decline of Spain and the rise of England as a great sea power
33From Tudors to StuartsElizabeth’s death marked the end of the Tudor dynasty.To avoid civil strife, Elizabeth named King James VI of Scotland her successor (son of Mary Stuart).James was a Protestant.The reign of James I ( ) is now known as the Jacobean Era
34King James I Strong supporter of the arts Furthered England’s position as a world powerSponsored the establishment of the first English colony in America—JamestownBelieved in “divine right” monarchy and had contempt for Parliament (power struggle)Persecuted Puritans (House of Commons)—James’s persecution prompted a group of Puritans to establish Plymouth colony in 1621
35The English Renaissance Architects designed beautiful mansionsComposers wrote new hymns for Anglican service and popularized the English madrigalRenaissance painters and sculptors moved to England (Hans Holbein the Younger was court painter to Henry VIII)Opened public schools (like private secondary schools today)Improvements at Oxford and Cambridge
36Elizabethan PoetryPerfected the sonnet and experimented with other poetic formsPhilip Sidney wrote the first Elizabethan sonnet cycle (a series of sonnets that fit together as a story)—Astrophel and StellaEdmund Spenser wrote a long epic, The Faerie Queen, in complex nine-line units now called Spenserian stanzasChristopher Marlowe popularized pastoral verse (idealizes the rural life)
37The Poetry of William Shakespeare Shakespeare changed the pattern and rhyme scheme of the Petrarchan sonnet, creating the English, or Shakespearean, sonnet
38Elizabethan DramaReintroduced tragedies—plays in which disaster befalls a hero or heroineReintroduced comedies—plays in which a humorous situation leads to a happy resolution.Began using blank verseChristopher Marlowe was the first major Elizabethan dramatist.Marlowe may have rivaled Shakespeare as England’s greatest playwright had he lived past thirty.
40Sir Walter Raleigh (ca. 1552-1618) The Nymph's Reply
41“He was not of an age but for all time.” Shakespeare began his involvement with the theater as an actor.By 1592, he was a popular playwright whose works had been performed at Elizabeth’s court.After the Globe Theater was built in 1599, many of his plays were performed there.Shakespeare wrote thirty-seven plays: nine tragedies, several comedies, ten histories, and a number of play classified as tragic comedies.
43Elizabethan and Jacobean Prose Philip Sidney’s Defense of Poesie is one of the earliest works of English literary criticism.Thomas Nashe’s Unfortunate Traveler, a fictional adventure, was a forerunner of the novel.Walter Raleigh wrote his History of the World during his confinement in the Tower of London (was beheaded for allegedly plotting against James I)The leading prose writer of the time was Francis Bacon.
44The King James BibleThe most monumental prose achievement of the English RenaissanceCommissioned by King James on the advice of Protestant clergymenTook fifty-four scholars three years to completeIs now among the most widely quoted an influential works in the English language