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The English Renaissance

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1 The English Renaissance

2 The Renaissance Carefully read the timeline on pp.222-23
What two important religious works were published during this period? What connections might there be between those publications and the creation of the Church of England in 1534? Name two events that indicate British presence in the New World. What do these events suggest about the importance of overseas trade to Britain?

3 The Renaissance A “rebirth” of civilization – reviving the learning of ancient Greece and Rome Humanism Individual vs. Communal A response to the “dark ages” of medieval Europe Began in Italy in the 1300s as the wealthy began to support learning and the arts Petrarch, Pico della Mirandola, Leonardo da Vinci, di Medici Italian Renaissance slowly spread north to England By 1530, 60% of English people could read (vs. 30% in 15th c.)

4 Exploration Thirst for knowledge leads to sea exploration
Advances in navigation and astronomy compass Columbus – 1492 voyage Trade route to East Discovery of Americas English companies and explorers became colonizers and merchant adventurers

5 Religion Growing sense of nationalism and humanism
People begin to question the authority of the Roman Catholic Church Europeans tired of corruption in the Church Connection to Canterbury Tales? Martin Luther protested against Catholic Church and began the Protestant Reformation 95 Theses Humanist values and beliefs led to a favoring of personal, not institutional, interpretations of scripture – sought an “enlightened private conscience” Reformation in England: Henry VIII’s motives were dynastic, not religious

6 English Monarchy Tudor dynasty founded in 1485 by Henry VII
Monarchs had absolute power Transformed England into a major world power London becomes metropolitan market Henry VIII breaks with Roman Catholic Church so that he can divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn Mary I (Bloody Mary) – a Catholic executed many Protestants

7 Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Received a Renaissance education and was a great patron of the arts Gathered around her the greatest writers of the day Il Cortegiano – Castiglione sprezzatura (“easy grace”) Reestablished Church of England Considered the greatest English monarch since William the Conquerer

8 Elizabethan Literature
Explosion of cultural energy Art, music, theater Literature expresses the spirit of the Renaissance Considered one of the high points in the history of English literature

9 Poetry Development of lyric poetry over the narrative poetry of the medieval age How might this reflect the larger attention to humanism that began during the Renaissance? Perfection of the sonnet (adapted from the Italian model) Sonnet: a 14-line poem usually written in iambic pentameter, rhyme scheme varies Petrarchan: abbaabba cdecde (or cdcdcd) Octave and sestet: Octave poses question, sestet answers Major sonnet writers: Sidney Spenser Shakespeare Changed the pattern and rhyme scheme of Pertrarchan sonnet English (or Shakespearean) sonnet: abab cdcd efef gg

10 Pastoral Poetry Idealizes the simple, rustic life of the countryside
Glorifies nature Christopher Marlowe: “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” Sir Walter Raleigh writes “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” in response

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