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INTRODUCTION TO CABINETMAKING Modern Cabinetmaking.

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1 INTRODUCTION TO CABINETMAKING Modern Cabinetmaking

2 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Throughout history wood has been a mainstay in peoples homes. Throughout history wood has been a mainstay in peoples homes. Wood has been used for any and all purposes from toilets, toilet seats, places to sit, places to eat, cabinets to put things in (clothes, food, dishes, valuables, etc…) and we could go on and on for countless other things. Wood has been used for any and all purposes from toilets, toilet seats, places to sit, places to eat, cabinets to put things in (clothes, food, dishes, valuables, etc…) and we could go on and on for countless other things.

3 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Caveman found ways to use tools to make products to help them each day, probably even a stump to sit on rather than sit on the ground. Caveman found ways to use tools to make products to help them each day, probably even a stump to sit on rather than sit on the ground.

4 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Early man made the greatest discovery ever made for mankind. They learned how to control fire. Early man made the greatest discovery ever made for mankind. They learned how to control fire. Fire Fire Once they discovered what fire is, the big problem was how to keep fire burning, since they had no way of starting fire. Once they discovered what fire is, the big problem was how to keep fire burning, since they had no way of starting fire.

5 Introduction to Cabinetmaking From places where lightening had started a fire, they discovered charcoal. Charcoal not only burns hotter than flames, it can burn for days. From places where lightening had started a fire, they discovered charcoal. Charcoal not only burns hotter than flames, it can burn for days.

6 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Once early man discovered the use for wood, and discovered charcoal can extend the life of fire, early man began making handicrafts of animals, people, and to make totem poles to represent their gods. Once early man discovered the use for wood, and discovered charcoal can extend the life of fire, early man began making handicrafts of animals, people, and to make totem poles to represent their gods. Archeologist studying some of the earliest civilizations have unearth some wooden handicrafts dating back to 5000 BC. Archeologist studying some of the earliest civilizations have unearth some wooden handicrafts dating back to 5000 BC.

7 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Some Indian handicrafts are around 5000 years old. Evidence of wood carvings and sculptures are found from the Vedic age, some 1500 BC. A sculpture, figure or figurine, may be formed out of wood by means of a cutting or carving tool. Woodcarving tools used during that time are carving knife, a gouge, the chisel, a mallet, v and u shape tools and of course the grained or sanding tools. The scope of carving depends on the nature of the wood. Commonly used wood for carving includes chestnut, walnut, mahogany and teak. Hardwoods have a longer life and luster. Soft woods are easier to carve. Natural oils of walnut and linseed are used to polish the complete pieces to protect them from dust and moisture. Some Indian handicrafts are around 5000 years old. Evidence of wood carvings and sculptures are found from the Vedic age, some 1500 BC. A sculpture, figure or figurine, may be formed out of wood by means of a cutting or carving tool. Woodcarving tools used during that time are carving knife, a gouge, the chisel, a mallet, v and u shape tools and of course the grained or sanding tools. The scope of carving depends on the nature of the wood. Commonly used wood for carving includes chestnut, walnut, mahogany and teak. Hardwoods have a longer life and luster. Soft woods are easier to carve. Natural oils of walnut and linseed are used to polish the complete pieces to protect them from dust and moisture.

8 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Wood Carving of West Bengal Wood Carving of West Bengal Wood Carving of West Bengal Wood Carving of West Bengal The village community halls, also known as chandimantaps, which were the centers of rural culture dating back some 5,000 years BC. They had the best of wooden pillars, wooden bracket beams etc. made out of beautifully carved wood. The village community halls, also known as chandimantaps, which were the centers of rural culture dating back some 5,000 years BC. They had the best of wooden pillars, wooden bracket beams etc. made out of beautifully carved wood. Today they would be like the Indian Totem polls. Today they would be like the Indian Totem polls.

9 Introduction to Cabinetmaking This an example of a wood carving which dates back to 1500 BC. This an example of a wood carving which dates back to 1500 BC.

10 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Moving through history we can see the real beginnings of modern day wood carvings. Moving through history we can see the real beginnings of modern day wood carvings. The real beginnings of modern building began with the Phoenician ships. After the Phoenicians were the Egyptians, Indians, Romans, Greeks, and French designers and builders who started the early days of the woodworking industry. The real beginnings of modern building began with the Phoenician ships. After the Phoenicians were the Egyptians, Indians, Romans, Greeks, and French designers and builders who started the early days of the woodworking industry.

11 Introduction to Cabinetmaking The Phoenicians were the boat building professionals of woodworkers. Shipwrecks have been discovered which date back to 100s of years BC. Theirs skills in boat building was extraordinaire The Phoenicians were the boat building professionals of woodworkers. Shipwrecks have been discovered which date back to 100s of years BC. Theirs skills in boat building was extraordinaire

12 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Example of Egyptian ship Example of Egyptian ship Cog ship dating back to Egypt 1000 AD Cog ship dating back to Egypt 1000 AD

13 Introduction to Cabinetmaking The real beginning of cabinet and furniture building dates back to 16 th century medieval Europe, known as the Gothic era. The real beginning of cabinet and furniture building dates back to 16 th century medieval Europe, known as the Gothic era. Most cabinet and furniture of that era was made to order by Kings for their many palaces and homes. Most cabinet and furniture of that era was made to order by Kings for their many palaces and homes. The pieces were extremely heavy, hand carved, and very elaborate. The pieces were extremely heavy, hand carved, and very elaborate.

14 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Furniture from Henry VIII (Gothic era) Furniture from Henry VIII (Gothic era)

15 Introduction to Cabinetmaking During the 17 th century the extremely heavy bulky furniture made for only Kings was transitioned into a much lighter version, known as Provincial furniture. This furniture was known as the renaissance period. During the 17 th century the extremely heavy bulky furniture made for only Kings was transitioned into a much lighter version, known as Provincial furniture. This furniture was known as the renaissance period. In many cases the furniture designs you have today in your homes came from the designs of the renaissance period. In many cases the furniture designs you have today in your homes came from the designs of the renaissance period.

16 Introduction to Cabinetmaking

17 Introduction to Cabinetmaking During the latter 1600s and early 1700s Mary, Queen of England, and her husband, William introduced the William and Mary furniture designs. During the latter 1600s and early 1700s Mary, Queen of England, and her husband, William introduced the William and Mary furniture designs. Primarily the gate leg table and the highboy. Primarily the gate leg table and the highboy. Their furniture designs had distinctive features such as, curved, decorative edges, and arch-like sections. Their furniture designs had distinctive features such as, curved, decorative edges, and arch-like sections.

18 Introduction to Cabinetmaking William and Mary Gate Leg Table William and Mary Highboy William and Mary Gate Leg Table William and Mary Highboy

19 Introduction to Cabinetmaking During the 18 th century brought many refinements in design and joinery. During the 18 th century brought many refinements in design and joinery. Queen Anne furniture designs were popular in both England and the American Colonies. Queen Anne furniture designs were popular in both England and the American Colonies. Queen Anne furniture is best known for the Cabriole leg and carved surfaces. Queen Anne furniture is best known for the Cabriole leg and carved surfaces.

20 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Queen Anne Cabriole Leg Queen Anne Pedestal Table Queen Anne Cabriole Leg Queen Anne Pedestal Table

21 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Thomas Chippendale designed and built furniture during the 18 th century. His designs included highly-carved mahogany and walnut furniture. Thomas Chippendale designed and built furniture during the 18 th century. His designs included highly-carved mahogany and walnut furniture. Chippendale borrowed designs from the Chinese and Queen Anne designs. Chippendale borrowed designs from the Chinese and Queen Anne designs. In 1754 he published a three volume set of Gentlemen and Cabinetmakers Directory. In 1754 he published a three volume set of Gentlemen and Cabinetmakers Directory. He is best known for chair designs. He is best known for chair designs.

22 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Thomas Chippendale Chair Thomas Chippendale Chair

23 Introduction to Cabinetmaking

24 Many designers followed during the 18 th century including George Hepplewhite. Hepplewhite was known for rounded fronts with rounded drawers. Many designers followed during the 18 th century including George Hepplewhite. Hepplewhite was known for rounded fronts with rounded drawers. Thomas Sheraton also is known for his secretary cabinet. Thomas Sheraton also is known for his secretary cabinet.

25 Introduction to Cabinetmaking George Hepplewhite design showing rounded front and doors George Hepplewhite side cabinet George Hepplewhite side cabinet

26 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Thomas Sheraton design showing a Secretary bookcase Sheraton Sheraton

27 Introduction to Cabinetmaking As you can see the 18 th century brought many new designs still being produced today. As you can see the 18 th century brought many new designs still being produced today. The 18 th century came to be called the Golden Age of Furniture. The 18 th century came to be called the Golden Age of Furniture. But what was happening in the American Colonies during this time in history? But what was happening in the American Colonies during this time in history?

28 Introduction to Cabinetmaking From the time the earliest settles arrived in America to around the mid 1600s furniture was very crude. From the time the earliest settles arrived in America to around the mid 1600s furniture was very crude. Early American cupboad Early American cabinet Early American cupboad Early American cabinet

29 Introduction to Cabinetmaking The crude furniture made an improvement and advanced to the American Colonial Period. The crude furniture made an improvement and advanced to the American Colonial Period. American Colonial period lasted from around 1620 to These designs were copies of European design with influence from American furniture. American Colonial period lasted from around 1620 to These designs were copies of European design with influence from American furniture. American Colonial furniture included chests, benches, and cupboards. American Colonial furniture included chests, benches, and cupboards. They also included tables, chairs, rockers, and cradles. They also included tables, chairs, rockers, and cradles.

30 Introduction to Cabinetmaking American Colonial chair American Colonial Dining Chairs American Colonial chair American Colonial Dining Chairs

31 Introduction to Cabinetmaking The first American designer to adapt European and Asian designs in America was Duncan Phyfe ( ). The first American designer to adapt European and Asian designs in America was Duncan Phyfe ( ). Phyfe introduced the Lyre-back chair and the Pedastal table used today in so many homes. Phyfe introduced the Lyre-back chair and the Pedastal table used today in so many homes.

32 Introduction to Cabinetmaking Duncan Phyfe Lyre-back chair Duncan Phyfe pedestal dining table with lyre-back chairs Duncan Phyfe Lyre-back chair Duncan Phyfe pedestal dining table with lyre-back chairs

33 Furniture Needs Throughout history all furniture and cabinets, whether they a rock to sit on, or a stump to eat off of, or a split wooden shelf to put things on, products were produced to fill a need, or to make someones life easier, or more comfortable. Throughout history all furniture and cabinets, whether they a rock to sit on, or a stump to eat off of, or a split wooden shelf to put things on, products were produced to fill a need, or to make someones life easier, or more comfortable. We sit on chairs and sleep on beds supported on wooden frames. We shop from store fixtures, work at desk, prepare food on counters, and put books on shelves. We sit on chairs and sleep on beds supported on wooden frames. We shop from store fixtures, work at desk, prepare food on counters, and put books on shelves. The majority of all these products throughout the ages were made from various species of wood. The majority of all these products throughout the ages were made from various species of wood. The design, appearance, quality, and finish improved over history depending on the availability of materials, tools, machines, and advances in the processes of cutting, shaping, assembly, sanding, and finishing processes. The design, appearance, quality, and finish improved over history depending on the availability of materials, tools, machines, and advances in the processes of cutting, shaping, assembly, sanding, and finishing processes.

34 Furniture Needs Design Decisions Think of yourself as a designer. Your responsibility is to help people meet their needs and wants for furniture and cabinets. How would you do that? Think of yourself as a designer. Your responsibility is to help people meet their needs and wants for furniture and cabinets. How would you do that? Design decisions are made using the decision making process keeping two things in mind, function and form. Design decisions are made using the decision making process keeping two things in mind, function and form. 1. Function describes the reason for having the cabinet, chair, bookcase, china cabinet, etc… 1. Function describes the reason for having the cabinet, chair, bookcase, china cabinet, etc… 2. Form is the appearance of the cabinet or furniture. 2. Form is the appearance of the cabinet or furniture.

35 Furniture Needs 7 steps to decision making to build a piece of furniture 7 steps to decision making to build a piece of furniture 1. Step is establishing the Needs and Wants. 1. Step is establishing the Needs and Wants. 2. Step is the Form and Function. 2. Step is the Form and Function. 3. Step is various Ideals. 3. Step is various Ideals. 4. Step is the Variables and Standards. 4. Step is the Variables and Standards. 5. Step is to Sketch ideals on paper. 5. Step is to Sketch ideals on paper. 6. Step is Material Considerations 6. Step is Material Considerations 7. Step is work out a set of Working Drawings. 7. Step is work out a set of Working Drawings.

36 Furniture Needs Today many of the designs come in standardize units. Such as, a dentist office, or library furniture, kitchen cabinets, bathroom vanities, etc … Today many of the designs come in standardize units. Such as, a dentist office, or library furniture, kitchen cabinets, bathroom vanities, etc …

37 Furniture Needs Kitchen cabinet design Kitchen cabinet design

38 Furniture Needs Another design concept is ready-to- assemble furniture or KD (knockdown) furniture. Another design concept is ready-to- assemble furniture or KD (knockdown) furniture.

39 Stop TestIntroduction to Cabinetmaking TestIntroduction to Cabinetmaking

40 Furniture Needs Material Decisions Today there are many materials available for producing cabinets and fine furniture. Today there are many materials available for producing cabinets and fine furniture. Materials you may consider are solid lumber, veneer, manufactured panels, plastic laminates, plastic, ceramic, and glass. Materials you may consider are solid lumber, veneer, manufactured panels, plastic laminates, plastic, ceramic, and glass. To assemble these materials you must decide on adhesives, mechanical fasteners, or joinery. To assemble these materials you must decide on adhesives, mechanical fasteners, or joinery.

41 Furniture Needs Beyond deciding on what materials you would need, you would have to decide on what tools and machinery are available. Beyond deciding on what materials you would need, you would have to decide on what tools and machinery are available. In the modern shop most machining will take place on stationary power tools, such as, table saws, radial saws, planers, and shapers. In the modern shop most machining will take place on stationary power tools, such as, table saws, radial saws, planers, and shapers.

42 Furniture Needs Table Saw Radial Arm Saw Planer Shaper Table Saw Radial Arm Saw Planer Shaper

43 Furniture Needs Along with the stationary power tools you need several varieties of hand tools. Hand routers, router bits, shaper cutters, drills and drill bits, saw blades, chisels, screwdrivers, etc… Along with the stationary power tools you need several varieties of hand tools. Hand routers, router bits, shaper cutters, drills and drill bits, saw blades, chisels, screwdrivers, etc…

44 Producing Cabinets Building and producing furniture and cabinets falls into two categories. Building and producing furniture and cabinets falls into two categories. The first category is (Custom furniture or cabinets.) The first category is (Custom furniture or cabinets.) The second category is (Standard or mass-produced.) The second category is (Standard or mass-produced.)

45 Producing Furniture and Cabinets Custom furniture and cabinets is the art of producing only one cabinet or piece of furniture and customizing it to fit into a certain area, a particular or unique look, a certain color, design, or pattern. Custom furniture and cabinets is the art of producing only one cabinet or piece of furniture and customizing it to fit into a certain area, a particular or unique look, a certain color, design, or pattern. It is built to match the surrounding furniture in design and finish. It is built to match the surrounding furniture in design and finish.

46 Producing Furniture and Cabinets Standard or Mass produced cabinets and furniture are built in large quantities in a factory. Standard or Mass produced cabinets and furniture are built in large quantities in a factory. They may build 20 pieces or 1000 pieces at a time. They may build 20 pieces or 1000 pieces at a time. They all will get the same finish, the same hardware, and look identical when completed. They all will get the same finish, the same hardware, and look identical when completed.

47 Producing Furniture and Cabinets There are 3 processes that have to be done when building cabinets or furniture. There are 3 processes that have to be done when building cabinets or furniture. 1. Preprocessingall the activities before you begin cutting anything. 1. Preprocessingall the activities before you begin cutting anything. 2. Processingactivities involving bringing in the lumber and materials, cutting the parts to shape, assembly, sanding, and finishing the cabinet or furniture. 2. Processingactivities involving bringing in the lumber and materials, cutting the parts to shape, assembly, sanding, and finishing the cabinet or furniture. Post processingtransporting, installing, and maintaining products. Post processingtransporting, installing, and maintaining products.

48 Producing Cabinets and Furniture Throughout the entire process of deciding what to build, which materials to use, what tools and tooling to use, and what type of finish to put on the cabinets, the next question is what quality of product to make. Throughout the entire process of deciding what to build, which materials to use, what tools and tooling to use, and what type of finish to put on the cabinets, the next question is what quality of product to make. Quality is measured by how well the product meets the expectation and requirement of the consumer. Quality is measured by how well the product meets the expectation and requirement of the consumer. Poor quality means you probably will not get paid, or not get other orders, and the end result is out of business. Poor quality means you probably will not get paid, or not get other orders, and the end result is out of business. Good quality means a satisfied customer, a happy consumer, and more orders from the customer or their neighbors and friends. Good quality means a satisfied customer, a happy consumer, and more orders from the customer or their neighbors and friends. Business is good and you have a future. Business is good and you have a future.

49 Wood Characteristics' A tree is natures oldest and largest living self-supporting thing. A tree is natures oldest and largest living self-supporting thing. Some trees live only about 20 years, where some trees, such as, the Redwood in California can live 1000s of years and can grow 100s feet tall and be 50 feet in diameter. Some trees live only about 20 years, where some trees, such as, the Redwood in California can live 1000s of years and can grow 100s feet tall and be 50 feet in diameter.

50 Wood Characteristics Cabinetmakers and furniture makers understand the unique qualities of wood. Cabinetmakers and furniture makers understand the unique qualities of wood. Wood has natural beauty, strength, durability, elasticity, and easy maintenance. Wood has natural beauty, strength, durability, elasticity, and easy maintenance. Wood has a natural beauty that cabinetmakers and furniture makers enhance through shaping and finishing of wood products. Wood has a natural beauty that cabinetmakers and furniture makers enhance through shaping and finishing of wood products. Wood varies in color and patterns that builders exploit to make unique pieces. Wood varies in color and patterns that builders exploit to make unique pieces. The structural qualities of wood make it desirable for building, in fact, some wood pound for pound is as strong as steel. The structural qualities of wood make it desirable for building, in fact, some wood pound for pound is as strong as steel.

51 Wood Characteristics Trees have a an extensive system of roots to support the massive size of some trees. They have one of two types of root systems. Trees have a an extensive system of roots to support the massive size of some trees. They have one of two types of root systems. Fibrous root systemthese roots are primarily spread out just under the ground surface. They may spread for 10 to 20 feet. Fibrous root systemthese roots are primarily spread out just under the ground surface. They may spread for 10 to 20 feet. Tap root systemAlmost all trees begin with a taproot. After 1 to 3 years some will continue to grow a taproot, while most will develop into a fibrous root system. Roots have two main purposes, they draw nutrients from the soil, for the tree to eat from, and they help make the tree stand up. Tap root systemAlmost all trees begin with a taproot. After 1 to 3 years some will continue to grow a taproot, while most will develop into a fibrous root system. Roots have two main purposes, they draw nutrients from the soil, for the tree to eat from, and they help make the tree stand up.

52 Wood Characteristics Fibrous Root System Taproot System Fibrous Root System Taproot System

53 Wood Characteristics The trunk of the tree extends from the root system up the crown of the tree. The trunk of the tree extends from the root system up the crown of the tree. The trunks primary job is to carry the nutrients absorbed by the roots to the crown or leave system of the tree. The trunks primary job is to carry the nutrients absorbed by the roots to the crown or leave system of the tree. The trunk performs its job of carrying water and minerals to the crown through internal cells in the tree. The trunk performs its job of carrying water and minerals to the crown through internal cells in the tree. The crown or leaves of the tree converts these nutrients to food. The conversion is called photosynthesis. The crown or leaves of the tree converts these nutrients to food. The conversion is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the formation of carbohydrates (sugars) in the green tissues of plants exposed to light. Photosynthesis is the formation of carbohydrates (sugars) in the green tissues of plants exposed to light. In order for photosynthesis to occur you need three things present: sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. In order for photosynthesis to occur you need three things present: sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. The food is then carried to the various parts of the tree. The food is then carried to the various parts of the tree.

54 Wood Characteristics The Process of Photosynthesis The Process of Photosynthesis

55 Wood Characteristics Cross-section of tree Split-section of a tree Cross-section of tree Split-section of a tree

56 Wood Characteristics The Inside Story The Inside Story The cambium cell layer is the growing part of the trunk. It annually produces new bark and new wood in response to hormones that pass down through the phloem with food from the leaves. These hormones, called auxins, stimulate growth in cells. Auxins are produced by leaf buds at the ends of branches as soon as they start growing in spring. The cambium cell layer is the growing part of the trunk. It annually produces new bark and new wood in response to hormones that pass down through the phloem with food from the leaves. These hormones, called auxins, stimulate growth in cells. Auxins are produced by leaf buds at the ends of branches as soon as they start growing in spring. Sapwood is the trees pipeline for water moving up to the leaves. Sapwood is new wood. As newer rings of sapwood are laid down, inner cells lose their vitality and turn to heartwood. Sapwood is the trees pipeline for water moving up to the leaves. Sapwood is new wood. As newer rings of sapwood are laid down, inner cells lose their vitality and turn to heartwood. Heartwood is the central, supporting pillar of the tree. Although dead, it will not decay or lose strength while the outer layers are intact. A composite of hollow, needlelike cellulose fibers bound together by a chemical glue called lignin, it is in many ways as strong as steel. A piece 12" long and 1" by 2" in cross section set vertically can support a weight of twenty tons! Heartwood is the central, supporting pillar of the tree. Although dead, it will not decay or lose strength while the outer layers are intact. A composite of hollow, needlelike cellulose fibers bound together by a chemical glue called lignin, it is in many ways as strong as steel. A piece 12" long and 1" by 2" in cross section set vertically can support a weight of twenty tons! The outer bark is the trees protection from the outside world. Continually renewed from within, it helps keep out moisture in the rain, and prevents the tree from losing moisture when the air is dry. It insulates against cold and heat and wards off insect enemies. The outer bark is the trees protection from the outside world. Continually renewed from within, it helps keep out moisture in the rain, and prevents the tree from losing moisture when the air is dry. It insulates against cold and heat and wards off insect enemies. The inner bark, or phloem, is pipeline through which food is passed to the rest of the tree. It lives for only a short time, then dies and turns to cork to become part of the protective outer bark. The inner bark, or phloem, is pipeline through which food is passed to the rest of the tree. It lives for only a short time, then dies and turns to cork to become part of the protective outer bark.

57 Wood Characteristics Annual Growth Rings Annual Growth Rings Showing the early wood and Showing the early wood and Latewood of how a tree grows Latewood of how a tree grows

58 Wood Characteristics Annual Growth Rings help us determine the age of a tree. Count the rings, that is how old the tree is. Annual Growth Rings help us determine the age of a tree. Count the rings, that is how old the tree is. The oldest living tree on earth is this Swedish Spruce which dates back 9550 years old. The oldest living tree on earth is this Swedish Spruce which dates back 9550 years old.

59 Wood Characteristics The oldest tree in the US is the Bristlecomb Pine found in the Western US. This tree is about 5,000 years old. The oldest tree in the US is the Bristlecomb Pine found in the Western US. This tree is about 5,000 years old.

60 Wood Characteristics How is a trees age determined Mr. Wolffia using a increment borer to age-date an old sierra juniper on a steep 9,000 foot ridge of Pine Mountain in the San Gabriel Range of southern California. A small core of the wood is removed and the rings are painstakingly counted. This remarkable tree was approximately 1400 years old. Mr. Wolffia using a increment borer to age-date an old sierra juniper on a steep 9,000 foot ridge of Pine Mountain in the San Gabriel Range of southern California. A small core of the wood is removed and the rings are painstakingly counted. This remarkable tree was approximately 1400 years old.

61 Wood Characteristics Core taken from a tree to determine age, climate, forest fires, plenty of rain, or drought situations. Core taken from a tree to determine age, climate, forest fires, plenty of rain, or drought situations.

62 Wood Characteristics Tree Identification Trees are classified as either deciduous or coniferous. Trees are classified as either deciduous or coniferous. Deciduous trees are broad-leaved trees, which loose their leaves in the fall. Deciduous trees are broad-leaved trees, which loose their leaves in the fall. Hardwood trees are deciduous. Deciduous means, loose their leaves in the fall. Hardwood trees are deciduous. Deciduous means, loose their leaves in the fall. Examples of hardwood trees are: maple, hickory, cherry, oaks, walnut, mahogany, ash, poplar, etc… Examples of hardwood trees are: maple, hickory, cherry, oaks, walnut, mahogany, ash, poplar, etc…

63 Wood Characteristics Hardwood TreeSoftwood Tree Hardwood TreeSoftwood Tree

64 Wood Characteristics Wood Identification Coniferous trees are softwood trees known as evergreens. (green year round) Coniferous trees are softwood trees known as evergreens. (green year round) Softwood refers to coniferous trees, which means, needle bearing. Softwood refers to coniferous trees, which means, needle bearing. Examples of softwood trees are: yellow pine, redwoods, fraser firs, douglas firs, white pines, cedars, etc… Examples of softwood trees are: yellow pine, redwoods, fraser firs, douglas firs, white pines, cedars, etc…

65 Wood Characteristics Wood Identification Appearance of woodappearance of wood determines the decorative effect of the product. Appearance of woodappearance of wood determines the decorative effect of the product. Appearance includes color, grain pattern, surface texture, and natural defects. Appearance includes color, grain pattern, surface texture, and natural defects. Color of wood is primarily brown. It can range from a light tan to a dark, reddish brown. Color of wood is primarily brown. It can range from a light tan to a dark, reddish brown. The darkest colors are found in heartwood where these materials are concentrated. The darkest colors are found in heartwood where these materials are concentrated.


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