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Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers CHAPTER 10Wood.

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1 Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers CHAPTER 10Wood

2 Wood is the earliest construction material used by mankind.  easy to use  durable  high strength  low weight  widely available  low cost 2 Still very widely used today for:  building frames  bridges  utility poles  floors  roofs  trusses  piles, etc. Introduction

3 Classification of Trees  Endogenous (intertwined growth): e.g., palm trees  very strong and lightweight  not generally used for engineering applications in U.S. 3 Exogenous (outward growth): e.g., most other trees  Fibers grow from the center outward by adding concentric layers (annual rings) which gives more predictable engineering properties. Deciduous (broad leaf) = hardwood (ash, oak, maple, walnut, etc.) – expensive slow growing Coniferous (cone bearing, evergreens) = softwood (Douglas fir, pine, spruce, cedar, etc.)

4  Each annual ring of exogenous tree is composed of:  Earlywood (light ring): rapid spring growth of hollow thin-walled cells  Latewood (dark ring): dense summer growth of thick- walled cells which are much harder & stronger Structure of Wood

5 Main Structural Features of Tree Stem  From center axis outwards:  Pith – center stem  Heartwood (darker) – provides structural support  Sapwood (lighter) – transports the sap  Cambium (very thin layer) – location of wood growth  Inner bark  Outer bark 5

6 Wood is Anisotropic  Longitudinal  parallel to the long axis (grain)  strongest and least shrinkage  Radial  perpendicular to the growth rings (out from center)  Tangential  tangent to the growth rings  weakest and most shrinkage  directions influence strength, modulus, thermal expansion, conductivity, shrinkage, etc. 6 – properties change with direction:

7 10.2 Chemical Composition  Cellulose  50% by weight  polymer that forms strands (fibrils) that make up cell walls (wood fibers)  G cellulose = 1.5  High density indicates higher strength  Lignin  23-33% of softwood  16-25% of hardwood by weight  glue  Hemicellulose  15-20% of softwood  20-30% of hardwood  Extractives  5-30% by weight  tannins, coloring matters, essential oils, fats, resins, waxes, starches  Ash-forming (minerals)  0.1-3% by weight  calcium, potassium, phosphate, silica 7

8 10.3 Moisture Content  shrinkage, strength, & weight depend on moisture content  depends on air temperature and humidity:  slow changing so it tends to adjust near the average  Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC)  moisture content for average atmospheric conditions  1% when hot & dry >130 o F & 5% humidity  20% when warm & humid <80 o F & 90% humidity 8

9 Fiber Saturation Point (FSP)  moisture content when cells are completely saturated with bound water but no free water inside cell cavities  FSP = 21-32%  Above FSP  changes affect only wet weight  Below FSP  small changes strongly affect all physical and mechanical properties 9 held tightly in cell cavities, wood shrinks on removal water inside cell cavities doesn't affect shrinkage

10 Shrinkage  largest shrinkage is in the tangential direction  smallest shrinkage is in the longitudinal direction  zero shrinkage above FSP regardless of direction  For glulam (varying growth ring orientations)  assume 6% shrinkage in 30% change in m/c below FSP (or 1% shrinkage per 5% change in m/c) 10 Fiber Saturation Point

11 10.4 Wood Production Production Steps: 1. Harvesting 2. Sawing 3. Seasoning (drying) 4. Surfacing (Planing) (optional) 5. Grading 6. Preservative Treating (optional) 11

12 Wood Products for Construction Dimensional lumber – 2” to 5" thick – 2x4,s etc.  used for light framing – studs, joists, beams, rafters, trusses, decking  Heavy timber – 4x6, 6x6, 8x8 and larger  usually rough sawn (actual sizes)  used for heavy framing, railroad ties, landscaping  Round stock  posts and poles – used for marine piling, utility poles, etc.  Specialty items  handrails, spindles, radius edge decking, turned posts, lattice, etc.  Engineered wood products  bonding wood strands, veneers, lumber or other wood fibers  large integral composite unit 12

13 Chapter 10: Wood

14 Step 1. Harvesting  minimal sap  concerns of fire hazard  other plant growth and underbrush is minimal 14

15  Live (plain) sawing – most rapid and economic  Quarter sawing – maximum amount of prime (vertical) cuts  Combination – most typical 15 Live (Plain) SawingQuarter SawingCombination Step 2. Sawing

16  Three types of board cut  Flat-sawn (grain is <45 o from flat side)  worst quality, most problems and defects  Rift-sawn (45 o -80 o )  Quarter-sawn (vertical- or edge-sawn) (80 o -90 o )  best quality, least shrinkage problems 16 Flat-Sawn Rift-SawnQuarter-Sawn

17  Green wood has % moisture content  ~15% when it leaves the mill  Methods of Seasoning  air drying (cheap & slow)  kiln drying (fast & expensive)  usually a combination  Uneven shrinkage in different directions during seasoning causes warping, checks, shakes, etc.  Type of cut controls these problems (vertical is the best) 17 Step 3. Seasoning (Drying)

18  Surfacing takes 1/4" (or more) from each side  S4S = surfaced 4 sides = “dressed”  Nominal sizes refer to the rough-sawn (unsurfaced) dimensions of the lumber in inches  For example, the actual dimensions of a 2 x 4 are 1 ½ in. x 3 ½ in. 18 Step 4. Surfacing (Planing)

19  Several agencies for different regions and species  Graded according to number of defects that affect strength & durability (knots, checks, pitch pockets, shakes, stains)  Visual (appearance) grading  Stress (structural) grading – Table 10.3  Hardwood grades – visual (also stress) grading  Softwood grades – visual & machine stress grading  For civil engineering applications, appearance grades are less important than structural grades Lumber Grades (Step 5)

20  Affect both appearance & mechanical properties  Caused by:  natural wood growth  seasoning too fast  wood diseases  animal parasites  faulty processing Knots – branch base that degrades mechanical properties  sound, tight knots may be good in compression but don’t count on it Lumber Defects

21 21 Mamlouk/Zaniewski, Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, Third Edition. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Shakes – wood separations between annual rings Wane – bark or other soft wood left on the edge of the board Sap Streak – colored streak of sap accumulated in wood fibers Reaction Wood – extra dense woody tissue that can cause warping and cracking Pitch pockets – opening between annual rings that contain resin Bark Pockets – small patches of bark embedded in the wood Checks – ruptures along the grain from drying 22

23 Splits – lengthwise separations caused by mishandling or seasoning Warping – (several types) from uneven drying of internal tree stress  Bowing – lengthwise curvature from end to end  Crooking – lengthwise curvature from side to side  Cupping – edges roll up  Twisting – one corner lifts Raised, Loosened, or Fuzzy Grain Chipped or Torn Grain Machine Burn – from worn saw blades 23

24 1. Specific Gravity & Density  Specific gravity of the cell walls (cellulose) = 1.5 regardless of species  excellent indicator of the amount of material (and properties) in dry wood  closer to 1.5 means more cell walls which is denser & stronger  Dry density = usually lb/ft 3 ( kg/m 3 ) Physical Properties of Wood

25 2. Thermal Properties  Thermal conductivity  The rate that heat flows through (inverse of thermal resistance R value)  Good R value (R = 1 / conductivity)  much better than metals  slightly worse than insulation  reduces loss of heat and cold  delays fire Specific Heat  Ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temp. of the material 1 o to that required to raise the temp. of an equal mass of water 1 o 25

26 Thermal Diffusivity  Rate that material absorbs heat from surroundings  Much better (lower) than most other building materials Thermal Expansion  Anisotropic: 5-10x greater across grain than parallel to it  Applying heat to wood: first expands the wood from thermal expansion then it shrinks from moisture loss (when below FSP) 3. Electrical Properties Good electrical insulator which decreases with moisture content – more water is a better electrical conductor 26

27  Wood is extremely anisotropic 1. Modulus of Elasticity  1-2 x 10 6 psi – for compression parallel to the grain  linear up to proportional limit, then small non-linear curve  Depends on:  species variation  moisture content  specific gravity  direction of grain Mechanical Properties of Wood

28 2. Strength Properties  Vary widely because of anisotropy, moisture content, defects, etc.  Tensile strength is greater than compressive strength  Tensile strength parallel to grain is 20x greater than perpendicular 28

29 3. Load Duration  Wood can support higher loads of short duration than sustained loads  Under sustained loads wood continues to deform  Design values assume 10 year loading and/or 90% of full maximum load throughout life of the structure  Multiply design values by load duration factors for short- duration loads 29 Load Duration Factors Mamlouk/Zaniewski, Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, Third Edition. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 4. Damping Capacity  Vibration damping (like shock absorbers) increases with moisture content up to FSP  10x greater damping than structural metals  wood structures dampen vibrations much better than metal 30

31  strength of wood structures is usually controlled by the joints and connections, which is the main concern of structural wood design classes  we have lots of experience with smaller structures (residential, light commercial) so design is usually empirical 31

32  Wood is tested to predict performance  two main techniques  testing of timbers of structural sizes (ASTM D 198)  testing of representative, small, clear specimens (ASTM D 143)  Testing of structural-size members is more important –more applicable to design values  Tests include flexure, compression, tension, etc.  Flexure test is more commonly used than the other tests  Two-point, third-point, or center-point loading Mechanical Testing

33 Third-point bending test on a 4 x 6 wood lumber 33

34 34 Compression parallel to grain Tension perpendicular to grain Compression perpendicular to grain Tension parallel to grain Hardness perpendicular to grain Hardness parallel to grain Bending Testing Representative, Small, Clear Specimens

35 10.10 Design Considerations  For design of wood structures, strength properties (Tables 10.3 &10.4) must be adjusted for the following factors Load durationWet service TemperatureBeam stability SizeVolume (glulam only) Flat useCurvature (glulam only) Column stabilityBearing area Repetitive member (lumber only) 35

36 10.11 Organisms that Degrade Wood 36 Fungi caused dry rot Spruce Ips Beetle Bacteria damage black heartwood Termite damage Marine-borer damage to a buried pile

37 Chapter 10: Wood Wood Preservation 1.Petroleum-based Solutions 2.Waterborne Preservatives (Salts) Application Techniques Superficial treatment: generally not effective Liquid penetration (pressure treating at high temp., heat, & moisture)  Structural members need to be fabricated as much as possible before treatment in order not to expose untreated wood by cutting, drilling holes, etc.  If not possible, treat cuts and holes with a liberal application of field applied preservative Mamlouk/Zaniewski, Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, Third Edition. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 38

39  Made by bonding together wood strands, veneers, lumber, or other forms of wood fibers to produce large units  engineered to produce specific and consistent mechanical properties that are better than natural large pieces  very difficult and expensive to find high quality large natural pieces Engineered Wood Products

40  Plywood  thin sheets (plies) glued together with the grain at right angles to each other so it has the same properties in both directions  veneer is peeled from a soaked log on a giant lathe 40

41  Particle & strand board  glue together wood scraps with resin to form sheets:  particle board = sawdust sized particles  chip board = randomly oriented wood chips  OSB = wood chips & strands oriented in specific direction 41

42  Floor joists  made with two 2x4s or 2x6s as flanges and an OSB web 42

43  Glue-Laminated Timbers (Glulam)  lumber glued together with the parallel grain  used for structural members, furniture, sports equipment, and decorative wood finishes  preferred because:  ease of manufacturing large members from standard commercial lumber  can vary the cross section along the length  special architectural designs  can use lower wood grade  in less stressed areas  minimizes shrinkage defects 43

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