2Review from last semester: Englandturmoil of Wars of the Roses (Lancaster vs. York)1485—a Lancaster, Henry Tudor (Henry VII), defeated the Yorks and established a new monarchial dynasty- the Tudor lineHenry VII brought nobles under control with the Court of the Star Chamber and effectively eliminated aristocratic opposition for his successor, Henry VIIIHenry VIII focused on eliminating the challenge of the papacy
3HENRY VII (FIRST TUDOR) r. 1485 - 1509 Defeated Richard III at BosworthUsed marital diplomacy to secure his throne and unite claims of Lancaster and York.Elizabeth of York was the daughter of Edward IV, sister of Edward V, niece of Richard III—lots of York ancestry!!Married his son Arthur to Catherine of Aragon and his daughter Margaret to King James IV of Scotland.The expedition of John Cabot claimed Nova Scotia and Newfoundland for England.
5HENRY VIII Fought for territory on the continent Made England a naval super power.Had six wives.1.Catherine of Aragon (his older brother’s wife!) from which came Mary. Divorce.2.Anne Boleyn from which came Elizabeth. Beheaded3.Jane Seymour from which came Edward. Died during childbirth.4.Anne of Cleves. Divorced.5.Catherine Howard. Beheaded.6.Catherine Parr. Outlived the king.Henry broke from the Roman Catholic Church over his divorce of Catherine, among other things. He created The Church of England in which he was the head.He worked closely with the House of Commons, giving them more power than that of the Lords.
6HENRY’S LEGACY (BEYOND THE WOMEN) In his youth was considered to be the most accomplished prince in Europe.Act of Supremacy declared him the head of a new Church of England.Dissolution of the Monasteries began in 1536.Built a navy to rival that of Spain.Created a fairly positive relationship with Parliament—how/why?Was named Defender of the Faith.
7C(K)ATHERINE OF ARAGON Widow of Arthur, Henry’s brotherGave birth to MaryCatholicOne still born, three miscarriagesPrince Henry dies at 52 daysDivorced following The Act ofSupremacy
8ANNE BOLEYN M. 1533 executed 1536 Gave birth to Elizabeth Had one miscarriageHenry began seeing Jane Seymore; lady in waiting.Charges against Anne = treason, adulteryand incest.She was beheaded with her brother.Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.After being blindfolded and kneeling at the block, she repeated several times: To Jesus Christ I commend my soul; Lord Jesus receive my soul.
9JANE SEYMOREM DIED 1537Married within 24 hours of Anne’s executionGave birth to EdwardDied two weeks after giving birthOnly one of Henry’s wives buried with him
10ANNE OF CLEVES M. January 1540 Divorced July 1540 Marriage was arrange by Henry’s ministersHe nicknamed her “Flanders Mare”Divorced and given title - “King’s Sister”
11KATHERYN HOWARD M. July 1540 Executed 1542 He was 49 and she was 19 Charged with adultery and incest.
12KATHERINE PARR M. 1543 Widowed 1547 She was married twice before - no kidsBecame a very good stepmother to all of the childrenNursed the king during his last years.Following the death of the king, she married Thomas Seymore; Edward VI’s uncle.
13EDWARD VI r. 1547 - 1553 Only surviving son of Henry VIII. Crowned at age nine.His uncle, Edward Seymour, was named Protector.The Book of Common Prayer was introduced.England moved toward Protestantism.He never truly exercised his authority as king.Edward died of tuberculosis at fifteen.He willed his throne to his cousin Lady Jane Grey.
14LADY JANE GREY July 1553 (executed 1554) Claim to the throne was weak.Female lineage, great grandfather Henry VII.Unwillingly took the throne at age 16Reigned for 9 days.Arrested by Mary’s soldiers.She, her husband Lord Dudley andher father-in-law were kept in the Towerof London.All were executed in February 1554.
15MARY I (Bloody Mary)Daughter of Catherine of Aragon. Was ten when her parents were divorced.VERY CatholicWas declared an illegitimate child by Parliament in 1533.37 years old when she ascended the throne.Married Philip II of Spain (also VERY Catholic).Executed numerous ProtestantsImprisoned her half-sister Elizabeth.Died at age 42.
16ELIZABETH I r. 1558 - 1603 Daughter of Anne Boleyn Ascended without contestProtestant upbringing.Spoke 9 languagesCatholics saw her as illegitimateCreated the Anglican ChurchDEFEATED THE SPANISH ARMADAEast India Company created.Raleigh in the New World—competition with SpainNEVER MARRIED !!! Why does this matter?Last Tudor
17Domestic PolicyCouncil of 19 nobles served as advisors. Lord Cecil was her closest confidant.Believed in social hierarchy.Statue of Apprentices 1563 = Work is a social and moral duty. Subjects must live and work where they were born.Poor Laws of 1597 = local areas were responsible for unemployed and homeless.She loved parties and court ceremonies.The Queen often sold land and offices for cash.Her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, plotted against her 3 times. The plots included the King of Spain. Mary was eventually executed in 1587.
18Religion & Elizabethsettled religious differences by merging broadly defined Protestant doctrine with traditional Catholic ritual, later resulting in the Anglican Church1559- Reintroduction of the Act of Supremacy1559 Act of Uniformity – 2nd version of Book of Common PrayerArticles: spells out Anglican doctrineIssues with zealot Catholics and Protestants (Puritans , Presbyterians and Congregationalists.)
19More religionradical Catholics wanted to replace Elizabeth I with Mary Stuart, Queen of ScotsPuritans – Protestants who wanted to purify the church of any “popery”, had two grievances about Elizabeththe retention of Catholic ceremony in the Church of Englandthe continuation of the Episcopal system of church governancePresbyterians – Puritans creation of an alternative national church of semiautonomous congregations governed by representative presbyteriesmore extreme Puritans, Congregationalists wanted every congregation to be autonomous
20Foreign Policy Continued her father’s policy of building a large navy. Worked at keeping the peace using a diplomatic concept known as balance of power.Did not want confrontation with Spain.
21More foreign policy English treaty with France Drake and Hawkins Support for Netherlands and Henry of NavarreDefeat of the ArmadaProtestant resistance everywhere is given hope and Spain is never again a world powerElizabeth dies in 1603 (69 years old), the last Tudor. James VI of Scotland (James I) takes the throne. Unity between England and Scotland complete.Why was Elizabeth so impressive to her observers?