Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5-Creating a Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 5-Creating a Constitution Section 1The Confederation-a national government for the new nation.Objectives today:List the achievements of the newly formed Confederation CongressSummarize the weaknesses of the Confederation Congress
3 Powers of the Confederation Congress CAN Declare War; Make Peace Coin Money; Establish a Postal System Raise Armies Sign Treaties; Manage Foreign Affairs CANNOT Impose taxes; Organize a Court System; Call State Militia; Protect Copyrights Regulate Trade; Take necessary actions to run the federal government
4 Articles of Confederation GovernmentProblems createdWeak Central GovernmentCongress has no power to taxNo power to enforce treatiesOne vote per stateNo power to regulate commerceAmendment requires unanimous vote of statesWeak currency and growing debtCan’t pay the armyTreaties are not honored, angers foreign countriesLarger, populous states not equally representedTrade hindered by high tariffs on trade by statesDifficult to adapt articles
6 March 15, 1783 Washington saves the day! Officers had not been paid, they wanted their pay and their pensionsWashington calls for a meeting in Newburgh, NY“Insidious Purposes”Washington goes “dramatic” and pulls a letter and a pair of reading glasses from his pocket. No one had ever seen him wear glasses before:
7 The men soften, many cry, when General Washington states: “Gentlemen, you must pardon me. I have grown gray in the service of my country and now feel myself growing blind.”
8 Land Ordinance of 1785Congress needed a way to raise money and pay debt. To do that, Congress needed to sell land west of the Appalachian Mountains.Orderly system of dividing, selling, and governing the land resulted.The Ordinance established a way to survey the land: townships, six miles square, each townships has 36 sections, one mile square (640 acres). Section 16 in each township was reserved for education/schools!
9 1787 Northwest Ordinance Northwest Ordinance Basis for Governing Western TerritoryNorthwest Ordinanceofficially titled "An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North West of the River Ohio," was adopted by the Confederation Congress on July 13, Also known as the Ordinance of 1787, the Northwest Ordinance established a government for the Northwest Territory, outlined the process for admitting a new state to the Union, and guaranteed that newly created states would be equal to the original thirteen states. Considered one of the most important legislative acts of the Confederation Congress, the Northwest Ordinance also protected civil liberties and outlawed slavery in the new territories.
10 Northwest Ordinance 1. 3-5 States could be created 2. Governor, secretary, 3 judges appointed by Congress3. WHEN there were 5000, adult males they could elect a territorial legislature4. WHEN there were 60,000 citizens could apply for statehood and BE ON EQUAL FOOTING WITH ALL OTHER EXISTING STATES.
11 GUARANTEES-Under the Ordinance Freedom of religion,Property rights,Trial by juryNo slavery or involuntary servitudeFive New StatesOhio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana
12 Trade SuccessAfter the American Revolutionary War (as you might guess) Britain imposed sharp restrictions on American access to British markets.American goods sold to British colonies in the Caribbean had to be carried in British shipsGoods carried to Britain from a state had to be in a ship from that state.Therefore…..The Congress began to set up trade agreements with other countries such as: Holland, Prussia, and Sweden. Also renewed trade with French colonies in the Caribbean.
13 The Congress Falters-TOO LITTLE POWER Americans want to make what they formerly bought from Britain.Britain flooded the United States with “cheap” goods.They put their imported goods in states that did not impose duties or taxes and then tried to move them into the other states.States even began to levy taxes on each other’s goods to raise revenue for their individual state.EACH STATE WAS BEGINNING TO ACT AS AN INDEPENDENT COUNTRY.
14 Diplomacy(Remember Congress can’t impose taxes, raise money, or regulate trade) Congress can’t make the Americans pay their debt owed to the British.Congress can’t make Americans return property to the Loyalists that was seized during the American Revolutionary War.In retaliation—Britain refused to evacuate troops from American soil.SPANISH—problematic too—Spain closes the Mississippi River to the Americans-cripples trade
15 No Money=Recession Farmers hurt the most Borrowing, mortgaging People holding bonds want to cash them in but states can’t afford to redeem them for gold or silver.Arguing over paper money began.
17 Massachusetts Starts 1786 government of Massachusetts raises taxes Farmers couldn’t pay their taxes, many lost their farmsFarmers in Western Massachusetts rebelled, shutting down courthouses to prevent farm foreclosuresDaniel Shays, a former captain in the Continental Army was one of the leaders
18 January 1787Shays led about 1200 farmers to seize weapons at an arsenalThe governor of Massachusetts sent General Benjamin Lincoln and 4,000 troops to defend the arsenalThe militia at the arsenal killed 4 farmers and the rest scatteredEffect: led many people to realize that a stronger central government was needed in order to protect the rights and property of the people (especially the wealthy)…