Presentation on theme: "Northwest Territory One of the most important accomplishments under the Articles of Confederation Planned to sell land to raise revenue By 1784, a plethora."— Presentation transcript:
1 Northwest TerritoryOne of the most important accomplishments under the Articles of ConfederationPlanned to sell land to raise revenueBy 1784, a plethora of individuals moved westwardCaused problems with Native AmericansFederal leaders could not afford to fight wars; decided to regulate settlementAll of the new territory in the northwest was considered to be free states; no slaves
3 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE CONFEDERATION: a group of loosely joined, but sovereign states.
4 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE Problem: Many states made claims to the western lands (Northwest Territory).Boundaries of the Northwest Territory: Great Lakes (north), Pennsylvania (east), Ohio River (south), Mississippi River (west)Having a plethora people moving into the northwest territory caused many problems for the federal land leaders.Problems with Native Americans arose, and the federal leaders could not afford to wage war to protect the settlers so they opted to regulate frontier settlement.
5 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE Solution to the Problem: All states agreed to cede (give) their claims to Congress, so Congress can sell the land for the good of the country (confederation).NATIONAL DOMAIN – Public land
6 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE LAND ORDINANCE of 1785: Congress’s plan to sell the land of the Northwest Territory.Rectangular Survey System – carefully surveyed the land into squares to be sold.It was divided up into 36 sections each consisting of 1 square mile or 640 acres.It sold for $1 per acreThis system essentially favored the wealthy because the famers would not be able to afford having to purchase an entire square mile.They had to rely on the wealthy speculators to sell portions of the land to the farmersHow did the land ordinance of 1785 favor wealthy speculators?-large portions of land that were very expensiveWhy might owners of large farms choose not to buy land in the NW Territory?-all states in NW Territory are free states; no labor
7 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE Township – the largest division of land. It is thirty-six square miles.Township6 MILES6 miles is about Carterville to Herrin (5.8 miles)
9 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE Section – 36 sections in a township. It is one square mile or 640 acres.Section
10 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE Acre – the smallest division of land. It sold for $1 per acre.The average size farm was 40 acres. So, it sold for $40.An acre is about the size of a football field, but a football field is slightly larger.An acre is 43, 560 square feet, or 1 square mileLions102030405040302010ACRE
11 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE Education – the sale from one section of each township goes to start a school for that township.How much went for education?Answer: $640
12 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE of 1787 this document establishes… the principles and procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States.
13 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE of 1787 Statehood:When the population reaches 5,000 adult males the area can:Establish an elected assemblyGovernor still had absolute veto power
14 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE of 1787 When the population reaches 60,000 adult males the area can:can write a state constitution and apply for statehood.If Congress approves the state Constitution that area will become a state.
15 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE of 1787 Five states:MinnesotaOhio (1803)Indiana (1816)MichiganWisconsinIllinois (1818)Michigan (1837)IllinoisWisconsin (1848)OhioIndiana
16 THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE of 1787 Rights Guaranteed:Trial by juryPublic educationFreedom of religionProhibition of slaveryFreedom and opportunity came at a price for the Indian’s of the region.100,000 Indians were expected to give up their lands and relocate
17 Conflicts with Spain and Britain The Spanish forbid American trade with New OrleansRelations with Britain deterioratedThey rejected free trade and reverted back to mercantilismAmerican Congress not strong enough to fight against these policies/violationsForbidding trade essentially discouraged movement west of the AppalachiansMercantilism: Americans could only trade with the British Empire under rules that favored British interestsThey could import as many British goods as possible, but they could no longer freely send their ships to trade with the British (which was the most important market because it contained American fish, lumber, and grains)
18 Weakness of the Articles of Confederation Congress could not levy or collect taxesCongress was powerless to regulate interstate commerce or foreign tradeEach state had only 1 vote in Congress (regardless of size)2/3 majority was required to pass lawsArticles could only be amended with the consent of ALL statesNo separate executive branch to enforce acts of CongressNo system or federal courtsTo survive, Congress sought a constitutional amendment to permit a federal 5% duty on imported goodsThis failed twice because 1 state disagreedMaybe only a new constitution could save the Union
19 Shay’s Rebellion Economic problems in MA and other states People had too little money; states continued to place high taxesFarms could be auctioned off and the farmers could be put in jailFarmers asked for debt relief, Massachusetts Legislature refused.People could pay up to $200 just in taxes; which is more than a farmer made in one year’s timeIf Farmers could not pay off debts; farms could be auctioned off; and farmers could be put in jail
21 Shay’s Rebellion Led by Daniel Shays, Revolutionary War Veteran Marched over 1,000 men to federal arsenal; but were put downFarmers lost; but gained sympathy throughout countryConvinced many Americans that the country needed a new government•American leaders hoped that the national issues could be solved by strengthening the national government.