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7.1 The Articles of Confederation

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1 7.1 The Articles of Confederation

2 Setting the stage The US has just won the war.
-Massive expansion in land -Unparalleled freedom But what to do with it? -What type of government should our new nation have? -That is the question we are occupied with after the Revolution

3 Up to this point in time Up to this point in time, colonies have been ruled by Great Britain. But remember: colonies had been very independent. The independence of each individual colony will be the starting point at which most states will naturally default to.

4 Government by the States
11 of the 13 states created constitutions (document stating rules under which a government will function). Rhode Island and Connecticut continued to use colonial charters-removed references to king Power of governors reduced-state legislatures (elected by people) given most power This type of government that is split between executive and legislative is called “bicameral”

5 What is a republic Americans wanted to set up a “republic”
Citizens elect people to represent them and make decisions based on what they want

6 Government by the States
Governors served as state executives (those who run the government and see that laws are carried out) More people allowed to vote under state constitutions-most states still barred African Americans NJ allowed some women to vote until 1807 Some women were allowed to vote because of a “loophole”….for example, if they were widows or if they inherited property.

7 Protecting Rights To prevent violation of rights (as Britain had done to the colonists), states set up bills of rights 1776-Virginia was the first state to add a bill of rights to its constitution-included freedom of press, trial by jury, freedom of religion

8 Articles of Confederation-
1777-Continental Congress set up Articles of Confederation to create a national government One branch-legislature called Congress (legislative branch makes laws) No courts, no executive States had one vote a piece-nine votes needed to pass a law State Gov = Executive, Legislative, Judicial: State Constitution was the document National Gov = Legislative (Congress) only branch; Articles were the document

9 AKA “Confederation Government” “Under the Articles”
Because there was only one branch, the legislative branch, AKA Congress, the federal government was sometimes called “the Congress”

10 Strong or Weak National Government?
Americans worried about a national government being too strong Federal=National=Central – you will hear all of these terms Why? Write a response as an “I Say”

11 Articles of Confederation
Articles wanted to limit the power of the central gov’t Power remained in the hands of the states-Congress could not regulate trade or collect taxes. Money voluntarily given by states Congress could deal with foreign nations and Native American groups, make laws, declare war, print money, run a postal service Could not enforce laws To amend (change) all 13 states had to approve Why could they not enforce laws? Lacked a judicial and exec branch

12 Settling Western lands
Articles had to be approved by all 13 states Not all would agree until issue of western lands was settled (some states claimed these areas) 1781-Virginia gave up western claims-Maryland agrees to Articles. Land given to federal government Land Ordinance of Townships set up & divided into 36 squares. Squares were then sold Ordinance means “law” One section set aside for schools-reflected nation’s leaders belief that democracy depended on education Western lands: took years for states to give up western land claims (VA last)

13 Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Set up a process for admitting new states in the Northwest Territory-present day states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio Congress appointed governor, three judges, and a secretary When an areas population reached 5,000 adult males-they could elect a legislature When it reached 60,000-it could request statehood Slavery outlawed 60,000 free 5000 free adult See map p. 207


15 Land Act of 1800 Passed to make it easier for people to buy land in the NW territory Made it possible for people to pay for the land over a period of four years

16 Problems at home and abroad
Money lost value(depreciated)/ economy poor British soldiers still in NW territory Each state used its own currency Large debt from war

17 Problems with Articles
Confederation Achievements Economic State taxes and currencies made trade between state difficult Federal government could not tax-had little money (had to be voluntarily given by states) Foreign -America seemed weak-Britain kept troops in Northwest Territory, Spain refused to let Americans use Mississippi River Negotiated a peace treaty Settled Western Lands

18 Closing questions: Answer these in written form, using PowerPoint as a reference. In what ways were the Articles of Confederation weak? What process allowed new states to join the union? Write an original tweet commenting on the AoC

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