2Setting the stage The US has just won the war. -Massive expansion in land-Unparalleled freedomBut what to do with it?-What type of government should our new nation have?-That is the question we are occupied with after the Revolution
3Up to this point in timeUp to this point in time, colonies have been ruled by Great Britain.But remember: colonies had been very independent.The independence of each individual colony will be the starting point at which most states will naturally default to.
4Government by the States 11 of the 13 states created constitutions (document stating rules under which a government will function).Rhode Island and Connecticut continued to use colonial charters-removed references to kingPower of governors reduced-state legislatures (elected by people) given most powerThis type of government that is split between executive and legislative is called “bicameral”
5What is a republic Americans wanted to set up a “republic” Citizens elect people to represent them and make decisions based on what they want
6Government by the States Governors served as state executives (those who run the government and see that laws are carried out)More people allowed to vote under state constitutions-most states still barred African AmericansNJ allowed some women to vote until 1807Some women were allowed to vote because of a “loophole”….for example, if they were widows or if they inherited property.
7Protecting RightsTo prevent violation of rights (as Britain had done to the colonists), states set up bills of rights1776-Virginia was the first state to add a bill of rights to its constitution-included freedom of press, trial by jury, freedom of religion
8Articles of Confederation- 1777-Continental Congress set up Articles of Confederation to create a national governmentOne branch-legislature called Congress (legislative branch makes laws)No courts, no executiveStates had one vote a piece-nine votes needed to pass a lawState Gov = Executive, Legislative, Judicial: State Constitution was the documentNational Gov = Legislative (Congress) only branch; Articles were the document
9AKA “Confederation Government” “Under the Articles” Because there was only one branch, the legislative branch, AKA Congress, the federal government was sometimes called “the Congress”
10Strong or Weak National Government? Americans worried about a national government being too strongFederal=National=Central – you will hear all of these termsWhy? Write a response as an “I Say”
11Articles of Confederation Articles wanted to limit the power of the central gov’tPower remained in the hands of the states-Congress could not regulate trade or collect taxes. Money voluntarily given by statesCongress could deal with foreign nations and Native American groups, make laws, declare war, print money, run a postal serviceCould not enforce lawsTo amend (change) all 13 states had to approveWhy could they not enforce laws? Lacked a judicial and exec branch
12Settling Western lands Articles had to be approved by all 13 statesNot all would agree until issue of western lands was settled (some states claimed these areas)1781-Virginia gave up western claims-Maryland agrees to Articles. Land given to federal governmentLand Ordinance of Townships set up & divided into 36 squares. Squares were then soldOrdinance means “law”One section set aside for schools-reflected nation’s leaders belief that democracy depended on educationWestern lands: took years for states to give up western land claims (VA last)
13Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Set up a process for admitting new states in the Northwest Territory-present day states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, OhioCongress appointed governor, three judges, and a secretaryWhen an areas population reached 5,000 adult males-they could elect a legislatureWhen it reached 60,000-it could request statehoodSlavery outlawed60,000 free5000 free adultSee map p. 207
15Land Act of 1800Passed to make it easier for people to buy land in the NW territoryMade it possible for people to pay for the land over a period of four years
16Problems at home and abroad Money lost value(depreciated)/ economy poorBritish soldiers still in NW territoryEach state used its own currencyLarge debt from war
17Problems with Articles Confederation AchievementsEconomicState taxes and currencies made trade between state difficultFederal government could not tax-had little money (had to be voluntarily given by states)Foreign-America seemed weak-Britain kept troops in Northwest Territory, Spain refused to let Americans use Mississippi RiverNegotiated a peace treatySettled Western Lands
18Closing questions:Answer these in written form, using PowerPoint as a reference.In what ways were the Articles of Confederation weak?What process allowed new states to join the union?Write an original tweet commenting on the AoC