Presentation on theme: "Objective: To examine the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. United States of America Articles of Confederation."— Presentation transcript:
Objective: To examine the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. United States of America Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation Established a confederation— an association of independent sovereign states with certain common goals Adopted the Articles of Confederation in November 1777 The states retained most of their powers and we had a weak national government. Why do you think the federal government was intentionally made weak?
The Articles of Confederation - the first central government of the United States - 9 of the 13 states had to agree on all federal laws. - The main power of Congress involved foreign affairs. - All 13 states had to agree on all amendments.
* Under the Articles of Confederation, the states had more power than the federal government. Examples: taxation and law enforcement * The Articles of Confederation had a weak federal government on purpose because they were afraid of their experiences with the British monarchy and Parliament.
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? I. Currency Issues The United States did not have a common currency. Americans carried money from the federal government, state government, and foreign nations.
Merchants stopped accepting money from outside of their own state, causing a lot of money to become worthless. This caused an increase in inflation.
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? II. Debt Congress could not tax the people and depended on money from the states. Therefore, the U.S. was unable to pay its debts! Examples: - The U.S. owed money to France, Holland, and Spain for loans made during the Revolutionary War. - The U.S. had not paid many of their own soldiers!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? III. International and Domestic Problems The U.S. lacked the military power to defend itself against Great Britain and Spain. States acted as individual countries and seldom agreed. Example: - Connecticut and Virginia almost went to war over land claims!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Courts (Judicial Branch) The nation lacked a national court system. Supreme Court
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? President (Executive Branch) The nation did not have a President, or Chief Executive. White House
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Congress (Legislative Branch) Laws were difficult to pass, needing the approval of nine states. Congress was responsible to the states, not the people. Congress had no power to collect taxes, regulate trade, coin money, or establish a military. Congress had one house. (unicameral) Capitol Building
Objective: To examine the settlement of the Northwest Territory
The Northwest Territory Was a need to organize the settlement of the vast Northwest Territory—present-day Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan Land Ordinance of 1785 Land would be surveyed and divided into a neat grid of townships, each 6 miles square. Each township had 36 sections, each 1 mile square. Government owned four of the sections. One section would be sold to support public schools. This same regular grid was used in other territories. It ended many boundary disputes.
Congress surveyed the land into squares 6 miles on each side. (townships) Land Ordinance of 1785
Each town was divided into 36 smaller sections, 640 acres each. (the cost was a minimum of $1 per acre)
People pooled their money in order to be able to afford a piece of land. Land Ordinance of 1785
Theoretical township diagram showing method of numbering sections with adjoining sections.
Township Map Sargent County, North Dakota
When the population reached 60,000 free citizens, the area could apply for statehood. Ex.) OH, IN, IL, MI, WI Northwest Ordinance (1787) When 5,000 free males of voting age settled an area, it became self- governing. Slavery was outlawed.
Shays’ Rebellion Farmer’s income decreased while taxes increased. Farmers who could not pay their debts had their farms taken away by the courts. Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and his supporters occupy a Massachusetts courthouse.
Therefore, in 1786, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in an attempt to capture a federal arsenal. Men Fighting During Shays' Rebellion
The U.S., without an organized army, was powerless. Massachusetts sent a militia to stop the rebellion.
Shays’ Rebellion convinced many people that the U.S. needed a new, stronger government. The Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced!
This is a picture of Daniel Shays grave in Scottsburg, NY.