Presentation on theme: "Governing a New Nation Chapter 7 Section 1. State Constitutions A. Beginning in 1776, 11 of the 13 states wrote constitutions to govern their states Two."— Presentation transcript:
State Constitutions A. Beginning in 1776, 11 of the 13 states wrote constitutions to govern their states Two states, Rhode Island and Connecticut, chose to use their colonial charters just removing references of the king. B. The writers wanted to prevent abuses of power and also wanted to keep power in the hands of the people. C. State constitutions limited the power of the governor to avoid giving one ruler too much power. D. States divided functions between the governor and the legislature.
State Constitutions E. The legislature was the more powerful branch because of the limited powers of the governor. Most states had a bicameral, or two-house, legislature. This further divided the power. F. Legislatures were popularly elected and elections were frequent. State legislatures had many disagreements about how to make taxes fair. G. In most states only white males who were 21 years of age could vote. They also had to either be property owners or pay a certain amount of taxes. In some states free African American males could vote and in New Jersey women could vote.
Articles of Confederation A. In 1777 the Articles of Confederation were adopted to provide for a central government. At the time the country needed a central government to fight the war against Britain. B. The Articles were America’s first constitution. The states, though, gave up little of their power. Each state kept “its sovereignty, freedom, and independence.”
Powers of Congress (AoC) A. Under the Articles of Confederation, the government, which was the Confederation Congress, had the authority to: conduct foreign affairs maintain armed forces borrow money issue currency
Limitations on Congress (AoC) A. Each state had one vote in Congress. State population did not matter, although larger, more populated states believed that they should have more votes. B. Nine States were needed to pass a law. Representation in Congress (AoC) A. The government did not have the authority to: regulate trade force citizens to join the army impose taxes B. Congress needed to ask state legislatures to raise money and provide troops. C. The government did not have a chief executive.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation A. Congress had little power. B. National government was weak. C. States were given too much power. D. Foreign countries took advantage. E. Congress couldn’t raise taxes to pay debts. F. Each state printed its own money. G. Little interstate trade. H. 9 states had to approve a new law.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A. established a new law that divided the Western territories into larger townships and smaller sections. Each smaller section would be sold at auction for at least $1 an acre.
The area in red is one example of an acre. (Not in Square yards as in a township)
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 A. It created a Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. B. It stated that when the population of a territory reached 60,000 citizens, that territory could apply for statehood. Each new state would enter as an equal to the original 13 states. C. It included a bill of rights to protect the settlers that guaranteed freedom of religion and trial by jury. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude were permitted in the new territories.
Economic ProblemsForeign Affairs Congress had war debts and no way to collect taxes. They had to depend on states to give the national government money No national currency, each state printed their own money Each state setup their own rules for interstate trade. Because of lack of a common defense, foreign nations saw U.S. as weak. British refused to vacate forts in Northwest Territory Spanish refused to allow American farmers access to New Orleans and Mississippi River.
Shay’s Rebellion A. Shays’ Rebellion occurred as a result of the problems farmers suffered. In 1787 Daniel Shays led a group of more than 1,000 angry farmers in forcing courts in western Massachusetts to close so judges could not seize farmers’ lands. B. Shays led the farmers toward the federal arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts, for arms and ammunition. The farmers did not stop, even when the state militia fired over their heads and then directly at them, killing four. The uprising was over when Shays and his followers scattered. C. Americans felt the impact of the Shays uprising. Many were scared that future uprisings could occur.