3The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program NanotechnologyThe biggest science initiative since the Apollo program
41 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter NanotechnologyNanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter= 1 x 10-9 mnano.gov
5How small are nanostructures? Single HairWidth = 0.1 mm= 100 micrometers= 100,000 nanometers !
6Smaller still DNA 6,000 nanometers Hair . 100,000 nanometers 10 nm objectsmade by guidedself-assembly.100,000 nanometers
7NanotechnologyIs it a truly a new field?Is it all hype?
8Example: Data storage capacity of the iPod 10 GB200120 GB200240 GB200480 GB2006160 GB2007Hard driveMagnetic data storageUses nanotechnology!
10Magnetic Data StorageA computer hard drive stores your data magnetically“Read”HeadSignal“Write”HeadcurrentSNDiskNS1_“Bits” ofinformationdirection of disk motion
11Improving Magnetic Data Storage Technology The UMass Amherst Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing is working to improve this technologyGranular MediaPerpendicularWrite HeadSoft Magnetic UnderLayer (SUL)coil1 bitY. Sonobe, et al., JMMM (2006)• CHM Goal: Make "perfect" mediausing self-assembled nano-templates• Also, making new designs for storage
12NanotechnologyIs it truly a new field?Is it all hype?
13PerspectiveSince the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance.Some nanotechnology has been around for a very long time already:Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticlesPhotographic film - silver nanoparticlesTires - carbon black nanoparticlesCatalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium
14nano.gov"Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program"
15NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing A Center on Nanomanufacturing at UMassResearchEducationOutreach
16Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing "Top down" versus "bottom up" methodsLithographyDepositionEtchingMachiningChemicalSelf-Assembly
17Photolithography for Deposition process recipeapplyspinbakespin coatingsubstratespin on resistresistexposemask (reticle)exposedunexposed"scission"developnarrow linedepositliftoff
18Lithography Patterned Several IBM Times Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip
21Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov ...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond ... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface ... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass....A nanofilm!
22Quantum Dots by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method) "Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse CdE(E = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993)
23SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS Block “B”Block “A”PSPMMA~10 nmScale set by molecular sizeOrdered Phases10% A30% A50% A70% A90% A
24Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system CORE CONCEPTFOR NANOFABRICATIONDepositionTemplateEtchingMaskNanoporousMembrane(physical orelectrochemical)Remove polymerblock within cylinders(expose and develop)Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system
25Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask nanoporous template1x1012 magnets/in2Pulse reverse electrodeposition results in improved microcrystalline structure and improved magnetic properties (larger perpendicula magnetocrystalline anisotropy)Data Storage......and More
26Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale? To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, and more)To introduce completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)For a sustainable future!
27Solar Cells Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy. Konarka
28Perhaps the most important result of the Nanotechnology Initiative so far: "The Medici Effect" PhysicsChemistryBiologyMaterials SciencePolymer ScienceElectrical EngineeringChemical EngineeringMechanical EngineeringMedicineAnd othersElectronicsMaterialsHealth/BiotechChemicalEnvironmentalEnergyFoodAerospaceAutomotiveSecurityForest products
29Students & Nanotechnology - A Field for People Who Want to Solve Technological Challenges Facing Societies Across the World