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Introduction to Nanotechnology

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Nanotechnology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Nanotechnology
Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics UMass Amherst

2 Nanotechnology What, How, Why?

3 The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program
Nanotechnology The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program

4 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter = 1 x 10-9 m

5 How small are nanostructures?
Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers !

6 Smaller still DNA 6,000 nanometers Hair . 100,000 nanometers
10 nm objects made by guided self-assembly . 100,000 nanometers

7 Nanotechnology Is it a truly a new field? Is it all hype?

8 Example: Data storage capacity of the iPod
10 GB 2001 20 GB 2002 40 GB 2004 80 GB 2006 160 GB 2007 Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!

9 Hard Disk Drives - a home for bits

10 Magnetic Data Storage A computer hard drive stores your data magnetically “Read” Head Signal “Write” Head current S N Disk N S 1 _ “Bits” of information direction of disk motion

11 Improving Magnetic Data Storage Technology
The UMass Amherst Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing is working to improve this technology Granular Media Perpendicular Write Head Soft Magnetic UnderLayer (SUL) coil 1 bit Y. Sonobe, et al., JMMM (2006) • CHM Goal: Make "perfect" media using self-assembled nano-templates • Also, making new designs for storage

12 Nanotechnology Is it truly a new field? Is it all hype?

13 Perspective Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance. Some nanotechnology has been around for a very long time already: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium

14 "Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program"

15 NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing
A Center on Nanomanufacturing at UMass Research Education Outreach

16 Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing
"Top down" versus "bottom up" methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly

17 Photolithography for Deposition
process recipe apply spin bake spin coating substrate spin on resist resist expose mask (reticle) exposed unexposed "scission" develop narrow line deposit liftoff

18 Lithography Patterned Several IBM Times Copper Wiring On a Computer

19 Self Assembly

20 An Early Nanotechnologist?

21 Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov
...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond ... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface ... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass.... A nanofilm!

22 Quantum Dots by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method)
"Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993)

Block “B” Block “A” PS PMMA ~10 nm Scale set by molecular size Ordered Phases 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A

24 Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system
CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane (physical or electrochemical) Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system

25 Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask
nanoporous template 1x1012 magnets/in2 Pulse reverse electrodeposition results in improved microcrystalline structure and improved magnetic properties (larger perpendicula magnetocrystalline anisotropy) Data Storage... ...and More

26 Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale?
To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, and more) To introduce completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.) For a sustainable future!

27 Solar Cells Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy.

28 Perhaps the most important result of the Nanotechnology Initiative so far: "The Medici Effect"
Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Food Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products

29 Students & Nanotechnology - A Field for People Who Want to Solve Technological Challenges Facing Societies Across the World

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