Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Nanotechnology Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics UMass Amherst."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Nanotechnology Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics UMass Amherst
Nanotechnology What, How, Why?
Nanotechnology The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter = 1 x m nano.gov
How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers !
Smaller still Hair. 6,000 nanometers DNA 3 nanometers 100,000 nanometers 10 nm objects made by guided self-assembly
Nanotechnology Is it a truly a new field? Is it all hype?
10 GB GB GB GB GB 2007 Example: Data storage capacity of the iPod Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!
Hard Disk Drives - a home for bits Hitachi
Magnetic Data Storage A computer hard drive stores your data magnetically Disk NS direction of disk motion Write Head __ Bits of information NS Read Head Signal current
Improving Magnetic Data Storage Technology The UMass Amherst Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing is working to improve this technology Granular Media Perpendicular Write Head Soft Magnetic UnderLayer (SUL) coil Y. Sonobe, et al., JMMM (2006) 1 bit CHM Goal: Make "perfect" media using self-assembled nano-templates Also, making new designs for storage
Nanotechnology Is it truly a new field? Is it all hype?
Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance. Some nanotechnology has been around for a very long time already: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium Perspective
"Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program" nano.gov
NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing ResearchEducationOutreach A Center on Nanomanufacturing at UMass
Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing "Top down" versus "bottom up" methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly
Photolithography for Deposition substrate process recipe spin on resist resist expose mask (reticle) develop deposit liftoff narrow line applyspinbake spin coating exposed unexposed "scission"
Lithography IBM Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip Patterned Several Times
An Early Nanotechnologist?
Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov. 7, 1773)...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass.... A nanofilm!
"Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993) Quantum Dots by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method)
SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size
CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system (physical or electrochemical)
nanoporous template Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask 1x10 12 magnets/in 2 Data Storage......and More
Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale? To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, and more) To introduce completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.) For a sustainable future!
Solar Cells Konarka Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy.
Perhaps the most important result of the Nanotechnology Initiative so far: "The Medici Effect" Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Food Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products
Students & Nanotechnology - A Field for People Who Want to Solve Technological Challenges Facing Societies Across the World