Measuring Nanostructures. How do we see nanostructures? A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm An electron microscope? Has a long.
Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Nanotechnology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Nanotechnology March 10, 2007bnlmanchester
2 Some things we will discuss: Introduction to NanotechnologyMarch 10, 2007Some things we will discuss:How big are nanostructuresScaling down to the nanoscaleHow are nanostructures made?Fabrication, synthesis, manufacturingHow do we see them?Imaging and property characterizationWhy do we care?Applications to science, technology and society
3 Why do we want to make things small? To make products smaller, cheaper, faster and better by "scaling" them down. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, life-science, etc)To introduce new physical phenomena for science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)
4 NanotechnologyNanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.1 nanometer = 1 x 10-9 mnano.gov
5 How small are nanostructures? Single HairWidth = 0.1 mm= 100 micrometers= 100,000 nanometers !1 nanometer = one billionth (10-9) meter
8 Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov ...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond ... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface ... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass....
9 CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil? ... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ...... perhaps half an AcreCHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil?Volume = (Area)(Thickness)V = A tIt can be determined that the thickness is around 1 nanometer—> ACTIVITY with Oleic Acid
10 An Early Nanotechnologist! A monolayer film (single layer of molecules)Langmuir film~1 nm thickAn Early Nanotechnologist!
11 Langmuir Film of an amphiphilic molecule water hydrophobic end e.g., steric acidpressureof an amphiphilicmoleculemonolayer filmwaterhydrophilic end
12 Langmuir-Blodgett Film Must control movablebarrier to keep constantpressuremultiple dips -multiple layers
13 "Optical Lever" laser pointer To determine amplification factor, use the concept of similar triangles
14 "Optical Lever"x2x1y1y2For example, if the laser pointer is 2" long, and the wall is 17' (204") away,Motion amplified by 100 times!
15 "Optical Lever" for Profilometry laser.cantilever
16 "Optical Lever" for Profilometry Long light path and a short cantilever gives large amplificationlaser.cantilever
21 A Few Nanostructures Made at UMass 100 nm dots70 nm nanowires200 nm rings150 nm holes18 nm pores12 nm pores14 nm dots13 nm rings25 nm honeycomb14 nm nanowires
22 "Nano" Nanoscale - at the 1-100 nm scale, roughly Nanostructure - an object that has nanoscale featuresNanoscience - the behavior and properties of nanostructuresNanotechnology - the techniques for making and characterizing nanostructures and putting them to useNanomanufacturing - methods for producing nanostructures in reliable and commercially viable ways
23 Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many industries PhysicsChemistryBiologyMaterials SciencePolymer ScienceElectrical EngineeringChemical EngineeringMechanical EngineeringMedicineAnd othersElectronicsMaterialsHealth/BiotechChemicalEnvironmentalEnergyAerospaceAutomotiveSecurityForest productsAnd others
24 Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors ibm.com
25 Electronics Keeps On Getting Better Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chipintel.com
26 Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance.Some have been around for a very long time:Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticlesPhotographic film - silver nanoparticlesTires - carbon black nanoparticlesCatalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium
27 nano.gov"Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program"
28 National Nanotechnology Initiative Program Component Areas (2007 Federal Budget)Fundamental Nanoscale Phenomena and ProcessesNanomaterialsNanoscale Devices and SystemsInstrumentation Research, Metrology and Standards for NanotechnologyNanomanufacturingMajor Research Facilities and Instrumentation AcquisitionSocietal Dimensions
29 Making Nanostructures: Nanofabrication Top down versus bottom up methodsLithographyDepositionEtchingMachiningChemicalSelf-Assembly
30 Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen LithographyMarkTuominenMarkTuominen(Using a stencil or mask)
31 Making a microscopic mask Example: Electron-Beam LithographyElectron BeamPolymer filmSilicon crystalNanoscopic Mask !
32 Lithography Patterned Several IBM Times Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip
33 NANOFABRICATION BY SELF ASSEMBLY One Example: Diblock CopolymersBlock “B”Block “A”PSPMMA~10 nmScale set by molecular sizeOrdered Phases10% A30% A50% A70% A90% A
34 Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system CORE CONCEPTFOR NANOFABRICATIONDepositionTemplateEtchingMaskNanoporousMembrane(physical orelectrochemical)Remove polymerblock within cylinders(expose and develop)Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system
35 DEVELOPMENT OF NANOFABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR PLASMONIC ARRAYS templatedotscylindersringsholes
36 How do we see nanostructures? • A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm• An electron microscope? Has a long history of usefulness at the nanoscale• A scanning probe microscope? A newer tool that has advanced imaging
37 Television Set prelim. TV screen eye Light ! electron beam electron source
38 Scanning Electron Microscope BeamDETECTORSAMPLE