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Introduction to Nanotechnology

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Measuring Nanostructures. How do we see nanostructures? A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm An electron microscope? Has a long.

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1 Introduction to Nanotechnology
March 10, 2007 bnl manchester

2 Some things we will discuss:
Introduction to Nanotechnology March 10, 2007 Some things we will discuss: How big are nanostructures Scaling down to the nanoscale How are nanostructures made? Fabrication, synthesis, manufacturing How do we see them? Imaging and property characterization Why do we care? Applications to science, technology and society

3 Why do we want to make things small?
To make products smaller, cheaper, faster and better by "scaling" them down. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, life-science, etc) To introduce new physical phenomena for science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)

4 Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 x 10-9 m

5 How small are nanostructures?
Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers ! 1 nanometer = one billionth (10-9) meter

6 Smaller still DNA 3 nanometers 6,000 nanometers Hair Red blood cell .

7 An Early Nanotechnologist?

8 Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov
...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond ... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface ... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass....

9 CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil?
... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ... ... perhaps half an Acre CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil? Volume = (Area)(Thickness) V = A t It can be determined that the thickness is around 1 nanometer —> ACTIVITY with Oleic Acid

10 An Early Nanotechnologist!
A monolayer film (single layer of molecules) Langmuir film ~1 nm thick An Early Nanotechnologist!

11 Langmuir Film of an amphiphilic molecule water hydrophobic end
e.g., steric acid pressure of an amphiphilic molecule monolayer film water hydrophilic end

12 Langmuir-Blodgett Film
Must control movable barrier to keep constant pressure multiple dips - multiple layers

13 "Optical Lever" laser pointer
To determine amplification factor, use the concept of similar triangles

14 "Optical Lever" x2 x1 y1 y2 For example, if the laser pointer is 2" long, and the wall is 17' (204") away, Motion amplified by 100 times!

15 "Optical Lever" for Profilometry
laser . cantilever

16 "Optical Lever" for Profilometry
Long light path and a short cantilever gives large amplification laser . cantilever

17 Scanning probe microscope
Laser Beam Vibrating Cantilever PS/PEO AFM image µm (large ) Surface AFM, STM, MFM, others

18 Quicktime AFM Cantilever Chip AFM Instrument Head Laser Beam Path
Cantilever Deflection

19 More on Nanotechnology

20 From DOE

21 A Few Nanostructures Made at UMass
100 nm dots 70 nm nanowires 200 nm rings 150 nm holes 18 nm pores 12 nm pores 14 nm dots 13 nm rings 25 nm honeycomb 14 nm nanowires

22 "Nano" Nanoscale - at the 1-100 nm scale, roughly
Nanostructure - an object that has nanoscale features Nanoscience - the behavior and properties of nanostructures Nanotechnology - the techniques for making and characterizing nanostructures and putting them to use Nanomanufacturing - methods for producing nanostructures in reliable and commercially viable ways

23 Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many industries
Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products And others

24 Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors

25 Electronics Keeps On Getting Better
Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chip

26 Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance. Some have been around for a very long time: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium

27 "Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program"

28 National Nanotechnology Initiative
Program Component Areas (2007 Federal Budget) Fundamental Nanoscale Phenomena and Processes Nanomaterials Nanoscale Devices and Systems Instrumentation Research, Metrology and Standards for Nanotechnology Nanomanufacturing Major Research Facilities and Instrumentation Acquisition Societal Dimensions

29 Making Nanostructures: Nanofabrication
Top down versus bottom up methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly

30 Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen
Lithography Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen (Using a stencil or mask)

31 Making a microscopic mask
Example: Electron-Beam Lithography Electron Beam Polymer film Silicon crystal Nanoscopic Mask !

32 Lithography Patterned Several IBM Times Copper Wiring On a Computer

One Example: Diblock Copolymers Block “B” Block “A” PS PMMA ~10 nm Scale set by molecular size Ordered Phases 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A

34 Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system
CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane (physical or electrochemical) Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system

template dots cylinders rings holes

36 How do we see nanostructures?
• A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm • An electron microscope? Has a long history of usefulness at the nanoscale • A scanning probe microscope? A newer tool that has advanced imaging

37 Television Set prelim. TV screen eye Light ! electron beam electron

38 Scanning Electron Microscope

39 Scanning probe microscope
Laser Beam Vibrating Cantilever PS/PEO AFM image µm (large ) Surface AFM, STM, MFM, others

40 STM Image of Nickel Atoms

41 Pushing Atoms Around STM

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