Measuring Nanostructures. How do we see nanostructures? A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm An electron microscope? Has a long.
Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Nanotechnology March 10, 2007 bnl manchester."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Nanotechnology March 10, 2007 bnl manchester
Some things we will discuss: How big are nanostructures Scaling down to the nanoscale How are nanostructures made? Fabrication, synthesis, manufacturing How do we see them? Imaging and property characterization Why do we care? Applications to science, technology and society Introduction to Nanotechnology March 10, 2007
Why do we want to make things small? To make products smaller, cheaper, faster and better by "scaling" them down. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, life-science, etc) To introduce new physical phenomena for science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 x m nano.gov
How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers ! 1 nanometer = one billionth (10 -9 ) meter
Smaller still Hair. Red blood cell 6,000 nanometers DNA 3 nanometers
An Early Nanotechnologist?
Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov. 7, 1773)...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass....
... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful perhaps half an Acre CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil? Volume = (Area)(Thickness) V = A t It can be determined that the thickness is around 1 nanometer > ACTIVITY with Oleic Acid
An Early Nanotechnologist! A monolayer film (single layer of molecules) ~1 nm thick Langmuir film
Langmuir Film pressure e.g., steric acid monolayer film water hydrophilic end hydrophobic end of an amphiphilic molecule
Langmuir-Blodgett Film Must control movable barrier to keep constant pressure multiple dips - multiple layers
"Optical Lever" To determine amplification factor, use the concept of similar triangles laser pointer
"Optical Lever" y1y1 x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 For example, if the laser pointer is 2" long, and the wall is 17' (204") away, Motion amplified by 100 times!
. "Optical Lever" for Profilometry cantilever laser
. "Optical Lever" for Profilometry cantilever laser Long light path and a short cantilever gives large amplification
A Few Nanostructures Made at UMass 100 nm dots 70 nm nanowires200 nm rings 12 nm pores14 nm dots 13 nm rings25 nm honeycomb 14 nm nanowires 18 nm pores 150 nm holes
"Nano" Nanoscale - at the nm scale, roughly Nanostructure - an object that has nanoscale features Nanoscience - the behavior and properties of nanostructures Nanotechnology - the techniques for making and characterizing nanostructures and putting them to use Nanomanufacturing - methods for producing nanostructures in reliable and commercially viable ways
Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many industries Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products And others
Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors ibm.com
Electronics Keeps On Getting Better Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chip intel.com
Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance. Some have been around for a very long time: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium
"Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program" nano.gov
National Nanotechnology Initiative Program Component Areas (2007 Federal Budget) 1.Fundamental Nanoscale Phenomena and Processes 2.Nanomaterials 3.Nanoscale Devices and Systems 4.Instrumentation Research, Metrology and Standards for Nanotechnology 5.Nanomanufacturing 6.Major Research Facilities and Instrumentation Acquisition 7.Societal Dimensions
Making Nanostructures: Nanofabrication Top down versus bottom up methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly
Lithography Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen (Using a stencil or mask)
Making a microscopic mask Silicon crystal Polymer film Electron Beam Nanoscopic Mask ! Example: Electron-Beam Lithography
Lithography IBM Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip Patterned Several Times
NANOFABRICATION BY SELF ASSEMBLY Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size One Example: Diblock Copolymers
CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system (physical or electrochemical)
DEVELOPMENT OF NANOFABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR PLASMONIC ARRAYS templatedots ringsholescylinders
How do we see nanostructures? A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm An electron microscope? Has a long history of usefulness at the nanoscale A scanning probe microscope? A newer tool that has advanced imaging
Television Set eye electron beam TV screen Light ! electron source prelim.
Scanning Electron Microscope SAMPLE Electron Beam DETECTOR