Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Mark Tuominen Professor of.
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Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics Jonathan Rothstein Professor of Mechanical Eng.
NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing ResearchEducationOutreach A Center on Nanomanufacturing at UMass
Nanotechnology The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter = 1 x m nano.gov
How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers !
Smaller still Hair. 6,000 nanometers DNA 3 nanometers 100,000 nanometers 10 nm objects made by guided self-assembly
Applications of Nanotechnology
10 GB GB GB GB GB 2007 First, An Example: iPod Data Storage Capacity Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!
Hard Disk Drives - a home for bits Hitachi
Magnetic Data Storage A computer hard drive stores your data magnetically Disk NS direction of disk motion Write Head __ Bits of information NS Read Head Signal current
Improving Magnetic Data Storage Technology The UMass Amherst Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing is working to improve this technology Granular Media Perpendicular Write Head Soft Magnetic UnderLayer (SUL) coil Y. Sonobe, et al., JMMM (2006) 1 bit CHM Goal: Make "perfect" media using self-assembled nano-templates Also, making new designs for storage
Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, and others) are of significant and growing importance. Some applications of nanotechnology has been around for a very long time already: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium Applications of Nanotechnology
Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale? To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, and more) To introduce completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.) For a sustainable future!
"Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program" nano.gov
Types of Nanostructures and How They Are Made
"Nanostructures" Nano-objectsNanostructured Materials nanoscale outer dimensions nanoscale internal structure Nanoscale Devices and Systems Integrated nano-objects and materials "nanoparticle" "nanorod" "nanofilm" "nanotube" and more
Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing "Top down" versus "bottom up" methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly
Nanofilms Pressure must be held low to prevent contamination! Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others Gold-coated plastic for insulation purposes "Low-E" windows: a thin metal layer on glass: blocks UV and IR light Nanofilm on plastic Nanofilm on glass
A thin film method: Thermal Evaporation Vaporization or sublimation of a heated material onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber vacuum ~10 -7 torr sample source film vacuum pump QCM vapor heating source Pressure is held low to prevent contamination! Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others There are many other thin film manufacturing techniques
Photolithography for Deposition substrate process recipe spin on resist resist expose mask (reticle) develop deposit liftoff narrow line applyspinbake spin coating exposed unexposed "scission"
Lithography IBM Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip Patterned Several Times
An Early Nanotechnologist?
Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov. 7, 1773)...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass.... A nanofilm!
"Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993) "Quantum Dots" by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method)
a Interaction with Light "Artificial atom" E = hf 420 THz750 THz
SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size
CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system (physical or electrochemical)
nanoporous template Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask 1x10 12 magnets/in 2 Data Storage......and More
More Applications of Nanotechnology
Solar Cells Konarka Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy.
Electric Solar Cells p-n junction interface cross-sectional view n-type silicon p-type silicon + - Sunlight Voltage load Current The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cell Volt
Nanostructured Solar Cells + - Sunlight Voltage load Current More interface area - More power!
Nanomedicine: Cancer Therapy tumor gold nanoshells Halas group, Rice Univ. targeted therapy: hyperthermic treatment
Perhaps the most important result in nanotechology so far: People from diverse fields working together to solve important problems in our society Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Food Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products
A Message for Students Nanotechnology will change practically every part of our lives. It is a field for people who want to solve technological challenges facing societies across the world