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Introduction to Nanotechnology July 23, 2007 bnl manchester.

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2 Introduction to Nanotechnology July 23, 2007 bnl manchester

3 Some things we will discuss: How big are nanostructures Scaling down to the nanoscale How are nanostructures made? Fabrication, synthesis, manufacturing How do we see them? Imaging and property characterization (measurement) Why do we care? Applications to science, technology and society Introduction to Nanotechnology July 23, 2007

4 Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale? To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, etc) To introduce completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)

5 Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 x m = 1 billionth of a meter

6 How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers ! 1 nanometer = one billionth (10 -9 ) meter

7 Smaller still Hair. Red blood cell 6,000 nanometers DNA 3 nanometers

8 Down to the Nanoscale

9 From DOE

10 A Few Nanostructures Made at UMass 100 nm dots 70 nm nanowires200 nm rings 12 nm pores14 nm dots 13 nm rings25 nm honeycomb 14 nm nanowires 18 nm pores 150 nm holes

11 "Nano" Nanoscale - at the nm scale, roughly Nanostructure - an object that has nanoscale features Nanoscience - the behavior and properties of nanostructures Nanotechnology - the techniques for making and characterizing nanostructures and putting them to use Nanomanufacturing - methods for producing nanostructures in reliable and commercially viable ways

12 Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many industries Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products And others

13 An application example: Nanoelectronics

14 Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors macroscale microscale nanoscale

15 Electronics Keep On Getting Better Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chip

16 Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance. Some have been around for a very long time: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium

17 "Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program"

18 National Nanotechnology Initiative Research Areas (2007 Federal Budget) 1.Fundamental Nanoscale Phenomena and Processes 2.Nanomaterials 3.Nanoscale Devices and Systems 4.Instrumentation Research, Metrology and Standards for Nanotechnology 5.Nanomanufacturing 6.Major Research Facilities and Instrumentation Acquisition 7.Societal Dimensions

19 A National Science Foundation Nano Center

20 Nanostructures

21 macroscale (3D) object width depth height nanofilm, or nanolayer (2D) nanowire, nanorod, or nanocylinder (1D) nanoparticle, nanodot, quantum dot (0D)

22 Making Nanostructures: Nanofabrication Top down versus bottom up methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly

23 Nanofilms (making an object thin)

24 A monolayer NANOFILM (single layer of molecules) ~1 nm thick Langmuir film An example of a FILM This is an example of SELF-ASSEMBLY

25 ... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful perhaps half an Acre CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil? Volume = (Area)(Thickness) V = A t V = 1 teaspoonful A = 0.5 acre ~ 2 cm 3 ~ 2,000 m 2 t = V/A 20,000,000 cm 2 = 2 cm 3 20,000,000 cm 2 = cm = 1 x cm = 1 x m = 1 nanometer (nm)

26 Langmuir Film pressure e.g., oleic acid monolayer film water hydrophilic end hydrophobic end of an amphiphilic molecule

27 Langmuir-Blodgett Film Must control movable barrier to keep constant pressure multiple dips - multiple layers

28 Another film method, Thermal Evaporation Vaporization or sublimation of a heated material onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber vacuum ~10 -7 torr sample source film vacuum pump QCM vapor resistive, e-beam, rf or laser heat source Pressure must be held low to prevent contamination! Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others There are many other thin film manufacturing techniques

29 Lithography (controlling width and depth)

30 Lithography Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen (Using a stencil or mask)

31 Making a nanoscopic mask Silicon crystal Polymer film Electron Beam Nanoscopic Mask ! Example: Electron-Beam Lithography

32 Lithography IBM Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip Patterned Several Times

33 Self-Assembled Nanostructures

34 Self Assembly

35 Tobacco Mosaic Virus

36 Gecko feet

37 Diatoms

38 Abalone

39 The Cell and Its Hierarchy

40 Whitesides et al. Science 295, 2418 (2002); Self assembly at all scales?

41 NANOFABRICATION BY SELF ASSEMBLY Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size One Example: Diblock Copolymers

42 CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system (physical or electrochemical)


44 Measuring Nanostructures

45 How do we see nanostructures? A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm An electron microscope? Has a long history of usefulness at the nanoscale A scanning probe microscope? A newer tool that has advanced imaging

46 Television Set eye electron beam TV screen Light ! electron source prelim.

47 Scanning Electron Microscope SAMPLE Electron Beam DETECTOR

48 (Atomic Force Microscope) "Optical Lever" To determine amplification factor, use the concept of similar triangles laser pointer

49 Scanning probe microscope Surface Vibrating Cantilever PS/PEO AFM image µm (large ) Laser Beam AFM, STM, MFM, others

50 Quicktime AFM Cantilever Chip AFM Instrument Head Laser Beam PathCantilever Deflection

51 Scanning probe microscope Surface Vibrating Cantilever PS/PEO AFM image µm (large ) Laser Beam AFM, STM, MFM, others

52 Image of Nickel Atoms STM

53 Pushing Atoms Around STM


55 "Optical Lever" y1y1 x1x1 y2y2 x2x2 For example, if the laser pointer is 2" long, and the wall is 17' (204") away, Motion amplified by 100 times!

56 . "Optical Lever" for Profilometry cantilever laser

57 . "Optical Lever" for Profilometry cantilever laser Long light path and a short cantilever gives large amplification

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