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Introduction to Nanotechnology

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1 Introduction to Nanotechnology
July 23, 2007 bnl manchester

2 Some things we will discuss:
Introduction to Nanotechnology July 23, 2007 Some things we will discuss: How big are nanostructures Scaling down to the nanoscale How are nanostructures made? Fabrication, synthesis, manufacturing How do we see them? Imaging and property characterization (measurement) Why do we care? Applications to science, technology and society

3 Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale?
To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, etc) To introduce completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)

4 Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 x 10-9 m = 1 billionth of a meter

5 How small are nanostructures?
Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers ! 1 nanometer = one billionth (10-9) meter

6 Smaller still DNA 3 nanometers 6,000 nanometers Hair Red blood cell .

7 Down to the Nanoscale

8 From DOE

9 A Few Nanostructures Made at UMass
100 nm dots 70 nm nanowires 200 nm rings 150 nm holes 18 nm pores 12 nm pores 14 nm dots 13 nm rings 25 nm honeycomb 14 nm nanowires

10 "Nano" Nanoscale - at the 1-100 nm scale, roughly
Nanostructure - an object that has nanoscale features Nanoscience - the behavior and properties of nanostructures Nanotechnology - the techniques for making and characterizing nanostructures and putting them to use Nanomanufacturing - methods for producing nanostructures in reliable and commercially viable ways

11 Nanotechnology R&D is interdisciplinary and impacts many industries
Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products And others

12 An application example: Nanoelectronics

13 Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors
microscale nanoscale macroscale

14 Electronics Keep On Getting Better
Moore's "Law": Number of Transistors per Microprocessor Chip

15 Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, etc) are of significant and growing importance. Some have been around for a very long time: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium

16 "Biggest science initiative since the Apollo program"

17 National Nanotechnology Initiative
Research Areas (2007 Federal Budget) Fundamental Nanoscale Phenomena and Processes Nanomaterials Nanoscale Devices and Systems Instrumentation Research, Metrology and Standards for Nanotechnology Nanomanufacturing Major Research Facilities and Instrumentation Acquisition Societal Dimensions

18 A National Science Foundation Nano Center A National Science Foundation Nano Center

19 Nanostructures

20 Nanostructures nanofilm, macroscale (3D) object or nanolayer (2D)
height depth width nanoparticle, nanodot, quantum dot (0D) nanowire, nanorod, or nanocylinder (1D)

21 Making Nanostructures: Nanofabrication
Top down versus bottom up methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly

22 Nanofilms (making an object thin)

23 An example of a FILM A monolayer NANOFILM (single layer of molecules)
~1 nm thick Langmuir film This is an example of SELF-ASSEMBLY

24 CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil?
... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ... ... perhaps half an Acre CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of oil? Volume = (Area)(Thickness) V = A t t = V/A = 2 cm3 20,000,000 cm2 V = 1 teaspoonful A = 0.5 acre ~ 2 cm3 ~ 2,000 m2 = cm = 1 x 10-7 cm = 1 x 10-9 m = 1 nanometer (nm) 20,000,000 cm2

25 Langmuir Film of an amphiphilic molecule water hydrophobic end
e.g., oleic acid pressure of an amphiphilic molecule monolayer film water hydrophilic end

26 Langmuir-Blodgett Film
Must control movable barrier to keep constant pressure multiple dips - multiple layers

27 Another film method, Thermal Evaporation
sample QCM Vaporization or sublimation of a heated material onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber film vapor Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others Pressure must be held low to prevent contamination! vacuum ~10-7 torr source There are many other thin film manufacturing techniques resistive, e-beam, rf or laser heat source vacuum pump

28 Lithography (controlling width and depth)

29 Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen
Lithography Mark Tuominen Mark Tuominen (Using a stencil or mask)

30 Making a nanoscopic mask
Example: Electron-Beam Lithography Electron Beam Polymer film Silicon crystal Nanoscopic Mask !

31 Lithography Patterned Several IBM Times Copper Wiring On a Computer

32 Self-Assembled Nanostructures

33 Self Assembly

34 Tobacco Mosaic Virus

35 Gecko feet

36 Diatoms

37 Abalone

38 The Cell and Its Hierarchy

39 Self assembly at all scales? Whitesides et al. Science 295,
2418 (2002);

One Example: Diblock Copolymers Block “B” Block “A” PS PMMA ~10 nm Scale set by molecular size Ordered Phases 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A

41 Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system
CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane (physical or electrochemical) Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system


43 Measuring Nanostructures

44 How do we see nanostructures?
• A light microscope? Helpful, but cannot resolve below 1000 nm • An electron microscope? Has a long history of usefulness at the nanoscale • A scanning probe microscope? A newer tool that has advanced imaging

45 Television Set prelim. TV screen eye Light ! electron beam electron

46 Scanning Electron Microscope

47 (Atomic Force Microscope) "Optical Lever"
laser pointer To determine amplification factor, use the concept of similar triangles

48 Scanning probe microscope
Laser Beam Vibrating Cantilever PS/PEO AFM image µm (large ) Surface AFM, STM, MFM, others

49 Quicktime AFM Cantilever Chip AFM Instrument Head Laser Beam Path
Cantilever Deflection

50 Scanning probe microscope
Laser Beam Vibrating Cantilever PS/PEO AFM image µm (large ) Surface AFM, STM, MFM, others

51 STM Image of Nickel Atoms

52 Pushing Atoms Around STM


54 "Optical Lever" x2 x1 y1 y2 For example, if the laser pointer is 2" long, and the wall is 17' (204") away, Motion amplified by 100 times!

55 "Optical Lever" for Profilometry
laser . cantilever

56 "Optical Lever" for Profilometry
Long light path and a short cantilever gives large amplification laser . cantilever

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