Presentation on theme: "Let the fun begin!. Speaker – the voice that tells the story Occasion- the time & place of the piece; the context that prompted the writing Audience-"— Presentation transcript:
Speaker – the voice that tells the story Occasion- the time & place of the piece; the context that prompted the writing Audience- the group of readers to whom this piece is directed Purpose- the reason behind the text Subject- topic addressed in piece of writing Tone- attitude of the writer From Ogden Morse “SOAPSTone: A Strategy for Reading & Writing”
The voice that tells the story. Before a writer begins to write, she or he must decide whose voice is going to be heard. Whether this voice belongs to a fictional character or to the writers themselves, writers should determine how to insert and develop those attributes of the speaker that will influence the perceived meaning of the piece. Who is the speaker who produced this piece? What is the their background and why are they making the points they are making? Is there a bias in what was written? You must be able to cite evidence from the text that supports your answer. No independent research is allowed on the speaker. You must “prove” your answer based on the text. Why does this writer choose different voices to tell different stories?
The time and the place for the piece; the context that prompted the writing. Writing does not occur in a vacuum. All writers are influenced by the larger occasion: an environment of ideas, attitudes, and emotions that swirl around a broad issue. Then there is the immediate occasion: an event or situation that catches the writer’s attention and triggers a response. What promoted the author to write this piece? How do you know from the text? What event led to its publication or development? What was the occasion Kanye West decided to write about?
The group of readers to whom this piece is directed. As they begin to write, writers must determine who the audience is that they intend to address. The audience may be one person, a small group or a large group; it may be a certain person or a certain people. What assumptions can you make about the audience? Is it mixed racial/sex group? What social class? What political party? Who was the document created for and how do you know? Are there any words or phrases that are unusual or different? Does the speaker use language the specific for a unique audience? Does the speaker evoke God? Nation? Liberty? History? Hell? How do you know? Why is the speaker using this type of language? Who is the audience for this group of writers?
The reason behind the text. Writers need to consider the purpose of the text in order to develop the thesis or the argument and its logic. They should ask themselves, “What do I want my audience to think or do as a result of reading my text?” Is the author attempting to bond with his audience, using appeals to pathos (creating an emotional or suffering bond), or appeals to ethos (creating a bond through common belief: religion, political, or value-based), or appeals to logos (presenting facts, statistics, or hard evidence). In what ways does he convey this message? How would you perceive the speaker giving this speech? What is the document saying? What is the emotional state of the speaker? How is the speaker trying to spark a reaction in the audience? What words or phrases show the speaker’s tone? How is the document supposed to make you feel? What is Jay Z’s Purpose behind his writing?
Writers should be able to state the subject in a few words or phrases. This step helps them to focus on the intended task throughout the writing process. Find the author’s exact thesis and then restate it in your words. The general topic, content, and ideas contained in the text. How do you know this? How has the subject been selected and presented? And presented by the author? What is Niki Minaj writing about?
The attitude of the author. The spoken word can convey the speaker’s attitude and thus help to impart meaning through tone of voice. With the written word, it is tone that extends meaning beyond the literal, and writers must learn to convey this tone in their diction (choice of words), syntax (sentence construction), and imagery (metaphors, similes, and other types of figurative language). The ability to manage tone is one of the best indicators of a sophisticated writer. What is the attitude of the speaker based on the text? What is the attitude a writer takes towards this subject or character: is it serious, humorous, sarcastic, ironic, satirical, tongue-in-cheek, solemn, objective. How do you know? Where in the text does it support your answer? What is this author’s tone towards his subject?