Presentation on theme: "Rhetoric and the Reader"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rhetoric and the Reader Using SOAPSTONE for a Rhetorical Analysis of LiteratureReading 2.5Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaborationReading 2.8Evaluate the credibility of an author’s argument or defense of a claim by critiquing the relationship between generalizations and evidence… and the way in which the author’s intent affects the structure and tone of a textLiterary Response and Analysis 3.9Explain how voice, persona, and the choice of narrator affect characterization and the tone, plot, and credibility of a textLiterary Response and Analysis 3.11Evaluate the aesthetic qualities of style, including the impact of diction and figurative language on tone, mood, and themeLiterary Response and Analysis 3.12Analysis the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period
2 What is Rhetoric? The art of communication… Analysis and comprehension of how a writer has influences or persuades his/her an audience.
3 So what does this mean to you? AnalysisBeing able to recognize HOW other people are trying to get you to do something, buy something, believe somethingComprehensionBeing able to use rhetorical strategies to get what YOU wantAdvertisementsTry to get you to BUY somethingSongsTry to get you to BELIEVE somethingTrying to persuade your parents to buy you a carTrying to persuade a girl/guy to go out with youTrying to persuade your teacher to give you more time on an assignment“He who does not study rhetoric will be victim of it.”–found on a Greek wall from 6th Century B.C
4 The Rhetorical Appeals Of what is the author trying to persuade the audience?EthosHow does the author demonstrate his credibilityWhy should the audience believe what the author is saying?PathosHow does the author use the audience’s emotions to help persuade them?LogosWhat facts and evidence does the author use to support the argument?
6 Ethos The Author Credibility If the audience is going to buy into the argument, they need to trust the authorThe author needs to demonstrate he knows what he is talking aboutPersonal experienceCredentialsResearch
7 Pathos The Audience Emotions It’s important for the author to understand who his audience isTheir interestsThe valuesTheir cultureOne way to help persuade the audience is to get them emotional involved in the topicMake them feel something
8 Organization / Evidence LogosThe Text / The TopicOrganization / EvidenceIn order for an argument to be believable, it needs to make senseThe author needs to provide evidence in order to persuade the audienceFactsExamplesResearch
9 What does rhetoric have to do with reading? As a reader, it is important to look atwho is the AUTHORwhat is his or her PURPOSE for writingHOW does he or she get the point across to their audienceSOAPSTONESubjectOccasionAudiencePurposeSpeakerToneOrganizationNarrative StyleEvidence“Words – so innocent and powerless as they are, as standing in a dictionary, how potent for good and evil they become in the hands of one who knows how to combine them.”~Nathaniel Hawthorne
10 Rhetorical Appeals and soapstone EthosSpeakerTonePathosAudienceLogosSubjectOccasion / ContextOrganizationEvidenceNarrative StylePurpose
11 SubjectEach of these elements work with one another to persuade the audienceTHE TOPICThe general content and ideas contained in the text.LogosThe subject of a text will determine the most logical structure the author must useThe Subject(Logos)The Audience(Pathos)The Rhetorical TriangleThe Writer(Ethos)
12 DEFINITION: how society impacts the subject of a text Occasion / ContextDEFINITION: how society impacts the subject of a textAuthors know how to refer to context to help the audience understand the position he or she takes and to connect positively with this or her argument.LogosThe context helps to create a need for the subject of the textContext =Vietnam War
13 Occasion / Context What’s Happening? Rhetorical Analysis The larger occasion = the broad issue which is the center of ideas and emotions.The immediate occasion = the issue that catches the writer’s attention and triggers a response.Where and when did the story take place?In what historical context?How does this context impact the message of the story?
14 Audience Rhetorical Analysis Pathos Toward whom is the text directed? Primary?Secondary?What assumptions can be made about the intended audience?How does the author utilize the audience’s emotions to persuade them?
15 purpose What the writer or wants to happen as a result of the text what he or she wants the audience to believe or do after hearing or reading the text.What is the purpose of the text? Is it…To persuadeTo call to actionTo entertainTo inform
16 purpose Rhetorical Analysis Considering the purpose is important so that the reader can examine the writer’s argument and the logic of itWhat is the message?What is the speaker's reason for writing the text?In what ways does the author convey the message of the purpose?How does the speaker try to spark a reaction in the audience?How is the text supposed to make the audience feel? What is its intended effect?
17 speaker Credibility Rhetorical Analysis The speaker and the author are NOT the same thingHow does the author make the speaker a reliable source?What can we tell about the “character” of the speaker?If we don’t know the author, then we have to look at his/her textPersonaIs someone identified as the speaker?What assumptions can you make about the speaker? (e.g., age, gender, class, emotional state, etc.)How does the writer present his/her narration?What is the character of the speaker?How does the speaker’s credibility help to persuade the audience?
18 Why is it important to understand persona? What is Persona?It is the “mask” or character the writer or speaker creates for him/herselfDon’t get fooled by the author!The writer creates a persona to make himself or herself more believable and trustworthy so that the audience will buy into what he or she is saying
19 “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary” toneRhetorical Analysis“Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary”EthosWhat is the author's attitude toward the subject?How does the diction (choice of words) point to tone?How does syntax create a specific tone?How does imagery create a specific tone?How does the tone help to persuade the audience?
20 organization Rhetorical Analysis Logos How is the text organized? How does the writer arrange his/her content?Stylistic and Linguistic Elements: syntax, language, literary devices, imagery, diction, detail.How does the organization help to persuade the audience?ChronologicalCause and EffectFlashforwards / Flashbacks
21 Narrative style Rhetorical Analysis Logos How does the writer tell the “story”?What does the writer reveal? Conceal?EvidenceWhat does (s)he invert/subvert? Is the writing “dramatic, almost play-like in its use of dialogue or theatrical conventions?How does the writer treat time?How does the narrative style help to persuade the audince?
22 evidence Rhetorical Analysis Logos How the argument is supported FactsStatisticsExamplesWhat kind of diction dominates the text?What is the source of the images (e.g, nature, weapons, law, science, theology, love, architecture, etc.).What do sound devices contribute to the work?How does the evidence provided help to persuade the audience?
23 Works CitedBanks, William P. “A Short Handbook on Rhetorical Analysis.” Web. 27 Feb Roskelly, Hephzibah & Jolliffe, David. Everyday Use: Rhetoric at Work in Reading and Writing. Pearson Longman, New York: Print. “SOAPSTONE: An Acronym for Analyzing Texts for Point of View.” Web. 26 June