2 Genres of Nonfiction Literary Essay Informational Provides factualStyle similar to fictionShort work on a single subjectinformationTells a storyExamples:Highly organizedReal people, places, or eventsNewspapersThoroughly researchedMagazinesExamplesStructuredEncyclopediasInfographicsBiographyAutobiographyMemoir
4 Proposal Claim Argument Thesis Assertion A statement that requires supportUsed to explore an idea, prove a fact, state an opinionAssertionProposal
5 Where to find the claim May be at the end of the introduction May be stated at the end of the pieceMay be implied (not directly stated)
6 Evidence Support provided for an author’s claims Statistical Anecdotal AnalogicalTestimonialSupport provided for an author’s claims
7 Using data (numbers) to prove a point Statistical EvidenceUsing data (numbers) to prove a pointCharts, graphs, polls, survey results, statisticsConsidered more trustworthy and fact basedThings to Consider:Are the statistics accurate?Are they from a reputable source?Is the information relevant?
9 A short account of a particular incident or event Anecdotal EvidenceA short account of a particular incident or eventEvidence based on a person’s OBSERVATIONS of the worldUsually dismissed as untrustworthy/meaninglessCan be useful in disproving a claimThings to Consider:Is the author ONLY using this type of evidence?Are they anecdotes being used to prove or disprove?Are there FACTS that would better support the claim?
11 Analogical Evidence A similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison is basedUsed when dealing with an under-researched topic or hard to understand conceptProvides examples that are similar to highlight a certain featureThings to Consider:Are the comparisons far-fetched or similar?Are the claims best supported by analogy?
13 Opinion or commentary from an “expert” Testimonial EvidenceOpinion or commentary from an “expert”Support a claim based on experience or educationExpert opinionThings to Consider:What are the qualifications of the “expert”Is the background information relevant?Does “famous” equal “expert”?
17 Speaker SOAPSTone The voice that tells the story. Before authors begin to write, they must decide whose voice is going to be heard.Whether this voice belongs to a fictional character or to the writers themselves, effective writers determine how to insert and develop those attributes of the speaker that will influence the perceived meaning of the piece.Speaker
18 SOAPSToneThe time and the place of the piece; the context that prompted the writing. Writing does not occur in a vacuum.All writers are influenced by the larger occasion: an environment of ideas, attitudes, and emotions that swirl around a broad issue. Then there is the immediate occasion: an event or situation that catches the writer's attention and triggers a response.Occasion
19 SOAPSToneThe group of readers to whom this piece is directed.Before authors begin to write, they must determine who the audience is that they intend to address.It may be one person or a specific group.This choice of audience will affect how and why authors write a particular text.Audience
20 Purpose SOAPSTone The reason behind the text. Writers need to consider the purpose of the text in order to develop the thesis or the argument and its logic.They ask themselves, "What do I want my audience to think or do as a result of reading my text?"Purpose
21 Subject SOAPSTone The central topic. Before authors begin to write, they must decide whose voice is going to be heard.Whether this voice belongs to a fictional character or to the writers themselves, effective writers determine how to insert and develop those attributes of the speaker that will influence the perceived meaning of the piece.Subject
22 Tone SOAPSTone The attitude of the author. The spoken word can convey the speaker's attitude and thus help to impart meaning through tone of voice.With the written word, it is tone that extends meaning beyond the literal, and authors must convey this tone in theirdiction (choice of words)syntax (sentence construction)imagery (metaphors, similes, and other types of figurative language).The ability to manage tone is one of the best indicators of a sophisticated writer.Tone
23 Annotating Nonfiction Underline the ClaimSummarize key pointsLook up unfamiliar wordsHighlight the evidenceLabel the type of evidenceComment on how effective it isComplete a SOAPSTone Analysis