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Elements of an Argument. What exactly is an argument? An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of an Argument. What exactly is an argument? An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements of an Argument

2 What exactly is an argument? An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research.

3 The Essential Ingredients of an Argument An issue open to debate Your position on the issue Your reasons for that position Evidence to support your reason –Experience, expert opinion, research and statistics

4 Argument Construction

5 Claim – debatable controversial statement the speaker or writer intends to prove with evidence Evidence/Grounds – support for writer’s claim –examples, anecdotes, facts, statistics, research, etc.) Commentary/Reasoning/Warrant – connecting the evidence to the claim –How does evidence support claim? Qualifier – puts limits on a claim –usually, sometimes, in most cases, etc. Rebuttals – respectful acknowledgement of opposing viewpoint explain the opposition's point of view, and argue against (refute) it, as well as argue for your own point.

6 Techniques for Writing Argument Analysis of the rhetorical situation: know your audience, purpose for occasion, genre, and cultural context Represent and evaluate the opposing points of view on the issue fairly and accurately Argue reasonably against opposing view and for your claim. Support your claims with sufficient evidence: facts, statistics, quotations, sound research

7 Persuasion vs. Argument Persuasion and argument are often used interchangeably Persuasion is a broad term, which includes many tactics designed to move people to a position, a belief, or a course of action Argument is a specific kind of persuasion based on the principles of logic and reasoning

8 The Importance of Argument and Persuasion In everyday life… Appealing a grade, asking for a raise, applying for a job, negotiating the price of a new car, arguing in traffic court In academic life… Defending your ideas, engaging intellectual debate On the job… Getting people to listen to your ideas, winning buy-in, getting your boss to notice, getting cooperation, moving people to action In writing… Irrefutably making your point, writing to be read In reading and listening… Critically evaluating other’s arguments, protecting yourself from unethical persuasive tactics, recognizing faulty reasoning when you see it.

9 Journal Does the government have the right to monitor social media, email, and telephone calls? Why or why not?

10 Argument Paper After reading several articles on NSA surveillance, make an argument for or against this type of surveillance. –Think: Is it constitutional? You must use evidence from the articles as well as your own opinions and commentary to support your claim. You must also have qualifiers and rebuttal. Due Date: Feb. 4th (B)/Feb. 5 th (A) (2+ pages)

11 NSA Surveillance Intro

12 Edward Snowden Edward Joseph "Ed" Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional who leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA), starting in June 2013. A former system administrator for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and a counterintelligence trainer at the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), he later worked for the private intelligence contractor Dell inside an NSA outpost in Japan. In June 2013, he came to international attention after disclosing to several media outlets thousands of classified documents that he acquired while working as an NSA contractor for Dell and Booz Allen Hamilton. Snowden's leaked documents revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many of them run by the NSA and the Five Eyes with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments. A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistleblower, a dissident, a patriot, and a traitor. His disclosures have fueled debates over mass surveillance, government secrecy, and the balance between national security and information privacy.

13 Amendement IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


15 Rhetorical Triangle pathos audience speaker ethos message logos

16 The Appeals pathos – emotional appeal; stirs strong feelings within the audience logos – logical appeal; constructs a message of a well-reasoned argument ethos – ethical appeal; establishes credibility and authority of speaker

17 How do I identify pathos? Connotative diction Diction Imagery Figurative language (metaphor, personification, hyperbole, etc. ) Carefully-crafted syntax (sentence structure) Personal anecdotes (experiences or stories)

18 How do I identify logos? Facts Statistics Research Referring to experts Cause & effect

19 How do I identify ethos? Stating qualifications for expertise Using first person plural pronouns (“we”) Citing relevant authorities Citing relevant allusions

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