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Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia Date submitted to – April 4, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use.

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Presentation on theme: "Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia Date submitted to – April 4, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use."— Presentation transcript:

1 Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia Date submitted to – April 4, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.

2 Moral Reasoning and Values Clarification Orientation to Deafness. Nancy Sheetz Chapter 8 A Review by Angela Williams Spring 2005

3 Moral Reasoning A philosophical tenet consisting of the intentions and reasons that sustains our actions (Windmiller, Lambert, and Truel, 1980). Sheetz, 2001, p. 180

4 Developing A Moral Code Moral codes focus on what is good and bad for people Moral principles, codes, judgments and admonitions have some bearing on behavior (moral discourse) Individuals may choose to behave in accordance with their beliefs and avoid those that would make them feel guilt Sheetz, 2001, p. 181

5 Three Major Theories Intuitionism – individuals know intuitively what is moral and good, having a sense of what is right and wrong Emotivism – a moral judgment conveys only an attitude and this is used to influence oneself to behave in a certain way Prescriptivism – moral statements are meant to guide rather than influence behavior Sheetz, 2001, p

6 A Structural-Developmental Theory of Moral Development The process and reasoning abilities that evolve as individuals process through stages of moral development Learning takes place as individuals interact with their environment The way individuals interact and respond to their environment will determine their self-concept and perceptions of the world Sheetz, 2001, p.182

7 Based on the uniqueness of the individuals knowledge, individuals will develop their own sense of morality through structuring and restructuring their social experiences Restructuring enables individuals to advance from one stage to the next All children experience these developmental reorganizations in the same order (stages of development) Sheets, 2001, p.182

8 Piagets Theory of Moral Development After observing children playing marbles, Piaget hypothesized that: childrens rule-following behavior was indicative of a respect for social rules Interpretations of the rules changed as the children grew older There were four distinct stages of moral development that could be observed Sheetz, 2001, p. 183

9 Piagets Stages of Moral Development Stage 1 (begins at age two) – play rather that moral rules. They invent their own rules – and there is no obligation to follow the rules Symbolic play Learning through the 5 senses Object performance Goal directed Actions Sheets, 2001, p.183

10 Rules for Toddlers If I like it, its mine If its in my hand, its mine If I can take it from you, its mine If I had it a little while ago, its mine If its mine, it must never appear to be yours in any way.

11 Rules for Toddlers, continued If Im doing or building something, all the pieces are mine. If it looks like mine, its mine If I saw it first, its mine If you are playing with something, and you put it down, its mine If its broken – its YOURS! Allyn and Bacon 2004

12 Piagets Moral Development Stage two – (ages 5 or 6 through age 8) Children begin to acknowledge the existence of rules, but do not use them consistently Moral realism Behaviors that comply with adult commands are good, those that do not, are bad The consequences of the act are valued more than the intention behind the act Children evaluate their behavior in conforming exactly to established rules Sheetz, 2001, p.184

13 Stage three (around 8 years old) Feelings of mutual respect for their peers (morality of cooperation) Peer Cooperation becomes the reason for following rules, rather than adult restraint Rules are man-made changeable agreements (autonomous morality) – a change in rules is acceptable as long as everyone agrees it is fair Sheetz, 2001, p. 184

14 Stage four (by age eleven) Capable of grasping why new rules are necessary Able to construct new rules to cope with all possible situations Develop their own ideas of what is right and wrong Understand political and social issues (laws) Sheetz, 2001, p. 185

15 Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning An extension of Piagets Stages: Kohlberg theorized that individuals progress through 3 levels to develop the ability to reason morally. Level 1: Preconventional Level – rules are set down by others Level 2: Conventional Level – Individuals adopts rules, sometimes subordinate own needs to those of the group Level 3: Postconventional Level – People define own values in terms of ethical principles they have chosen to follow Sheets, 2001, p. 185

16 Level 1: Preconventional Level Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation. Physical consequences of action determine its goodness and badness. Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation. Whats right is whatever satisfies ones own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Sheets, 2001, p. 186

17 Level 2 Conventional Level Stage 3: Good-Bye Nice Girl Orientation. Good behaviors is whatever pleases or helps others and is approved of by them. One earns approval by being nice Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation. Right is doing ones duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining the given social order for its own sake. Sheets, 2001, p. 187

18 Level 3: Postconventional Level Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation. Whats right is defined in terms of general individual rights and in terms of standards that have been agreed upon by the whole society. Laws are not frozen – they can be changed for the good of society Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation. Whats right is defined by decision of conscience according to self-chosen ethical principles. (the golden rule) Sheetz, 2001, p.187

19 The Impact of Deafness on Moral Development What affects the developmental process of children who are deaf: Social Factors Linguistics Physical Psychological Audiological Sheetz, 189

20 Assessing Levels of Moral Reasoning in DHH individuals The language structure in Kohlbergs test was modified for DHH students. Results showed these individuals: were at stage 1 or stage 2, only a few at stage 3 reasoning. were unable to fully handle equality in reciprocity relationships. Rigid and egocentric in their thinking No inclination to compromise Self-preservation was of primary importance Appeared to know necessary social rules - love for family and friends – but relationships beyond this was not carried over Those who were better readers scored higher Sheetz, 192

21 Liberation From Adult Contraaints: Impact of Parental Discipline Techniques Discipline can be viewed in 3 categories Power Assertion – physical power over the child Love Withdrawal of Affection – expressing anger, withholding affection Induction – pointing out the consequences of the childs behavior Sheetz, 194

22 Holstein (1968) – parents who engage in dialogues with their children pertaining to the issues in a dilemma produced the most advanced children on Kohlbergs scale of moral reasoning Baumrid (1980) – parents who discipline with power assertive techniques are found to base their morality on the fear of external punishments. Sheetz, P.195

23 The Use of Discipline and Methods of Communication Studies conducted with deaf children of hearing parents, investigators found: Parents used power assertive discipline with their deaf child, not as apparent with the hearing child Mothers of deaf children were more controlling and intrusive Parents were less likely to delegate decision-making responsibilities the deaf child Parents viewed physical punishments as more effective Delay found in the development of moral reasoning in deaf children Sheetz, 2001, p.195

24 Additional Insights into Deafness and Moral Development Many studies emphasize the lag of development in deaf individuals, however the following should be observed: Most of the research does not take into consideration the delay in cognitive development in deaf individuals When adults were studied, they were frequently taken from clinical settings. This may indicate an amount of psychological problems Few studies have been designed specifically for use within the Deaf subculture – environmental differences were not considered Sheetz, 2001, p. 197

25 Social Learning and Values Clarification Moral behavior = the framework within which judgments are made Values - used as an assessment of behavior along the dimensions of what is considered good or bad Attitudes – a response to an opinion Interests – an opinion that may change easily Beliefs – true or false, correct or incorrect Sheetz, 2001, p. 198

26 The Acquisition of Values: Values are acquired gradually through the learning process: Achievement Independence Cleanliness Values may be a matter of perception… Sheetz, 2001, p.199

27 Assumptions About the Nature of Human Values 1. The total number of values that a person possesses is relatively small 2. All men everywhere possess the same values to different degrees 3. Values are organized into value systems 4. The antecedents of human values can be traced to culture, society, and its institutions and personality 5. The consequences of human values will be manifested in virtually all phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating and understanding Sheetz, 2001, p. 200

28 Clarifying Values: Ones values may be traced to personality, culture and society Students must be provided with strategies that will enable them to recognize their values and incorporate them to their fullest, while simultaneously developing a tolerance for those who embrace a different value system Sheetz, 2001, p. 201

29 Deafness, Social Learning and Values Clarification Deaf children tend to avoid spontaneous social interaction for fear of frustration - misunderstandings - conflicts Contact with peers who share their communication mode within the Deaf culture remains active Sheetz, 2001, p. 202

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