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Kohlberg's theory of moral development

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1 Kohlberg's theory of moral development
By: Bianca Alejandro and Emely Alvarez

2 Based on the basic studies he conducted his experimental evidence using both methods:
-cross section studies a research method which uses a group(s) of participants of different ages who are studied and compared, and -longitudinal research that is over a long period of time. Moral dilemma is a social problem which has 2 or more solutions each of which is particularly ‘wrong’ in a certain way. Moral meaning the difference between right and wrong with accordance to a particular society or culture. His theory includes 3 levels and 2 stages in each level -Preconvention level :obedience and punishment orientation naively egotistical orientation. -Conventional level: Good boy/nice girl orientation Law-and-social-maintaining orientation -Post conventional level: Legistic social-contract orientation Universal ethical orientation

3 Pre-conventional level (0-9)
Stage1-Obedience and punishment orientation Children follow the rules to avoid punishment. To tell the difference between right or wrong children must have a punishment to understand the difference but if the act was not noticed or punished they will not think the act is wrong doing ,so the harshness of the punishment will tell how worse an act is. Stage2-Naively egotistical orientation children do the right things not because they think its ‘right’ they do this due to the reward that they might receive. by this stage people are able to relate each other to someone's else's, they maybe concerned about somebody but is more likely to do the right thing when given a reward. Pre-conventional level (0-9)

4 Pre-conventional (stage1&2)
Cheating on the test because he will get a new comic book if he passes Not cheating because the teacher might get angry or catch him cheating and he wouldn’t get a reward Pre-conventional (stage1&2)

5 Conventional level (9-15)
Early adolescence, most people have matured to the ‘conventional level` of moral development, they are considerate of thought and feelings of others Stage 3- Tend to follow rules, avoid punishment, they do this to gain approval of others, gain praise for those who are important in their lives. Do the right thing to gain social acceptance, not because they are scared of punishment Generally do the right thing to avoid feeling guilty Like having others think they are ‘nice` or ‘good`. They think it is important Have difficulty saying no to there friends and resisting peer pressure All leads to awareness of rules and behaviour, which then leads to the development of respect Stage 4- focus shifts to social institutions, school, friends, law Seeks to avoid the guilt and shame which comes from police man and teachers Like stage 3, stage 4 individuals tend to maintain social order, follow the law. EG- in the car with there mother, they will warn their parent about driving at 40km in a school zone This stage adolescent is more likely to refuse a friend to copy there work. Moral behaviour, Law abiding behaviour. Conventional level (9-15)

6 Conventional level (stage 3&4)
Friends pushing you into situation where you might feel uncomfortable. In the car with their mother, they will warn their parent about driving 40km in a school zone. Conventional level (stage 3&4)

7 Post-conventional level (16+)
Post-conventional level: involves the mentality and the individual listens to their conscience of what is right rather than following the law. This is because morals may conflict with legal issues and only people that are on the stages 5 or 6 decide to follow morals instead of society A person below stage 5 or 6 believe that laws can be changed if it is to serve people on better basis. People in stage 5 or 6 believe that laws can be changed if it is to serve people on better basis. Stage 5or6 people tend not to be with the crowd. They tend to develop more individual ways of thinking. However not all individuals have been through all of Kohlberg’s stages. When a person has reached a higher stage, they generally don’t go back and change their moral level of reasoning. Post conventional level the stage from 16 yrs on wards in which true morality develops and decisions on what is morally ‘right’ are guided by ones conscience. Post-conventional level (16+)

8 Post-conventional (5&6)
Fighting against the system, seeing inequality as a rampant evil against moral judgement. Choosing more individual ideas that fit into their moral judgements. Post-conventional (5&6)

9 Criticisms of his theory
Based on the western culture, no other cultures are involved. Based only on males not females Children not being able to interpret thoughts due to cognitive developments Not every one is placed in the situations they where placed for. Criticisms of his theory


11 http://upload. wikimedia
d/df/Kohlberg_moral_stages_vop.gif Bibliography

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