What is it? Changes in the child’s: Ability to distinguish right from wrong The ability to act on this distinction
Components of Morality Moral Affect Emotional component- motivation Positive outcome (pride) Negative outcome (guilt, shame, embarrassment)
Components of Morality (cont.) Moral Reasoning (cognition) Thought processes used for decisions ↑ age, ↑ thoughts of right/wrong Cog Dev Resist temptation
Components of Morality (cont) Moral Behavior Behaving consistently with beliefs Gradual cookie from Jar?cookie from Jar? Influenced by: Right/wrong Practicing inhibition of neg. impulses
Theories of Moral Development Evolutionary/Biological Benefits of pro-social & altruistic behavior Piagetian Cog-Dev approach Cog dev. Is the foundation of moral dev Cog growth + social exp. = moral development Both help understand rules, laws, & obligations
Piagetian stages Cookie jar and cups Premoral (3-4 yrs) Little awareness of rules/make up own Inconsistent response Heteronomous (5-10 yrs) Moral absolutes- Strong respect for rules (parents, God, Law) Consequences stronger than intent (15 cups is naughtier) Punishment- spanking/go to room (not pay for cups) E.g. Speeding with a 6 year old?
Piagetian stages Autonomous (10-11 yrs)-moral dev complete Social rules are more arbitrary Attempted cookie theft is naughtier –due to intent Reciprocal judgment- punishment fits crime The “golden rule” Clean up mess or no cookies for a week.
Kohlberg’s Theory (1963) Refinement of Piaget Cognitive development not enough Exposure to moral conflicts (grey areas)
Heinz Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death (cancer). One drug might save her life, but it was rare, and hard to obtain. A local pharmacist had the drug (which cost $200 to produce) and was selling it for $2000 for a dose that might save the woman’s life. Her husband was able to scrounge $1000 by borrowing from friends, but could not scrape up rest of the money. The druggist refused to sell the husband the drug at that price, or to accept a payment plan. The husband then broke into the drug store and stole the medicine. SHOULD THE HUSBAND HAVE DONE THAT? WHY?/WHY NOT?
Kohlberg’s Theory Rationale for answers Self-serving (pro-theft) Obedience (anti-theft)
Kohlberg’s Theory Level 1- Pre-conventional Rules external to self (have to follow them) What is right is what I can get away with or what satisfies me Stage 1- Punishment and obedience- It’s wrong because I’ll get punished Morality is based on consequence Obey mostly to avoid punishment Stage 2- Rewards- It’s wrong if I get caught Conforms to gain reward “It’s Heinz’s life he’s risking, he can do it if he wants” “He’ll probably get caught, so it’s too much risk” Altruism (due to benefits- what’s in it for me)
Kohlberg’s Theory Level 2- Conventional Goal is to obey rules- for approval or “because you’re supposed to”- Promotes societal order Stage 3- Good boy/good girl- It’s wrong when others disapprove Goal is to be thought of as a good person Basis is person’s intent Stage 4- Maintenance of social order- “It’s wrong because it’s illegal” Everyone is equal Right is determined by legal authority Rules & laws are good things (to keep public order)
Kohlberg’s Theory Post-conventional Right/wrong based on broader/abstract terms (principles of justice) Morally right ≠ legally right Stage 5- Social contract- “It’s wrong because the majority dictate it to be”- Our government Laws may be bad Social contracts if represent the will of the majority Stage 6- Individual but universal ethical principles- “it’s wrong because it is detrimental to people”- MLK Right/wrong based on self-chosen values Universal justice- Equal consideration for all Heinz example
What Influences Moral Development? IQ Social Dev (empathy, thinking of others?) Parenting style (emphasizes personal responsibility) Sibling behavior (models) Religion Culture Personality (impulsiveness, open-mindedness) Peers (need for approval)