3 Industry in the NorthChapter 14, Section 1How did new inventions change manufacturing and farming in the North?What difficulties did the first railroads face?How did railroads and clipper ships help the northern economy?
4 New Inventions Changed Manufacturing and Farming Chapter 14, Section 1InventionSewing machineInventorElias Howe,improved by Isaac SingerImprovementClothing could be manufactured by machine much more rapidly than it could be made by hand.Iron PlowSteel PlowJethro WoodJohn DeereThe older, heavy wood and iron plows had to be pulled by slow-moving oxen. A horse could pull a lighter-weight steel plow faster.Mechanical ReaperCyrus McCormickA horse-drawn reaper could mow wheat and other grains five times as fast as farmhands using hand tools.Mechanical Drill, Threshing Machine, Horse-Drawn Hay RakeAll these improvements helped farmers raise more grain with fewer farmhands.
5 New Inventions Changed Manufacturing and Farming Chapter 14, Section 1InventionTelegraphInventorSamuel F. B. MorseImprovementThe “talking wire,” or telegraph, was a device that sent electrical signals along a wire. For the first time, news could travel long distances in a few minutes.steam-powered locomotive enginean English familyRailroad cars had been pulled by horses or mules. The steam-powered locomotive, or engine to pull railroad cars, could do 30 miles per hour.
6 The Trouble With Railroads Chapter 14, Section 1Early problemsWorkers who moved freight on horse-drawn wagons feared losing their jobs.Investors in canals worried that competition from the railroads would cause them to lose their investments.Soft roadbeds and weak bridges often led to railroad accidents.Locomotives often broke down.The smokestacks belched thick smoke and hot embers. The embers sometimes burned clothing.Where there was only one track instead of one in each direction, trains collided.Gradually, many of these problems were solved and by the 1850s, railroads crisscrossed the nation.
9 Railroads and Clippers Improve the Northern Economy Chapter 14, Section 1Railroads increased commerce within the United States.New York, Chicago, and Cincinnati became major rail centers.Railroads allowed factory owners to transport large amounts cheaply and quicklyRailroads linked towns with cities. The towns became markets for goods made in the cities.Railroads brought cheap farm goods from the West to New England. New England farmers could not compete and left their farms for other jobs.A new kind of ship, the clipper ship, increased commerce between the United States and other nations.Americans sold cotton, fur, wheat, lumber, and tobacco overseas.John Griffiths launched a new, speedier ship—the clipper ship. It was a sleek vessel with tall masts and huge sails that caught every gust of wind.