Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 25 The Muscular System 25-2 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 25.1 Describe the functions of muscle. 25.2 Compare the three types of muscle tissue including."— Presentation transcript:
25-2 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 25.1 Describe the functions of muscle. 25.2 Compare the three types of muscle tissue including their locations and characteristics. 25.3 Explain how muscle tissue generates energy. 25.4Describe the structure of a skeletal muscle.
25-3 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 25.5 Recognize the terms origin and insertion. 25.6Identify the major skeletal muscles of the body, giving the action of each. 25.7 Summarize the changes that occur to the muscular system as a person ages. 25.8 Describe the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of various diseases and disorders of the muscular system.
25-4 Introduction Muscles contract and relax to cause movement 600 individual muscles in the body You will focus on the differences among three muscle tissue types, the structure of skeletal muscles, muscle actions, and the names of skeletal muscles.
25-5 Functions of Muscle The ability to contract enables muscles to –Allow movement –Provide stability –Control body openings and passages –Warm the body
25-6 Functions of Muscle (cont.) Skeletal muscles – Attach to bones by tendons –Contractions result in movement Smooth muscle – contractions move organ contents Cardiac muscle – contractions pump blood from the heart
25-7 Functions of Muscle (cont.) Stability –Hold bones tightly together –Small muscles hold vertebrae together Heat Production –Heat is released when muscles contract –Helps maintain a normal temperature
25-8 Control of Body Openings and Passages Sphincters –Valve-like structures –Control movement in and out of passages
25-9 Apply Your Knowledge True or False: ___Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by ligaments. ___Contractions of smooth muscle produce movement of organ contents. ___Cardiac muscle produces atrial and ventricular contractions. ___Sphincters control movement of substances out of passages. ___Heat is released as muscles relax. tendons in and out contract T T F F F ANSWER:
25-10 Types of Muscle Tissue Muscle cells or myocytes – muscle fibers –Sarcolemma –Sarcoplasm –Sarcoplasmic reticulum –Myofibrils Long structures in sarcoplasm Striations – arrangement of filaments Muscle structure
25-12 Types of Muscle Tissue (cont.) Muscle Group Major Location Major Function Mode of Control Skeletal Muscle Attached to bones and skin of the face Produces body movements and facial expressions Voluntary Smooth Muscle Walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, and iris Moves contents through organs; vasoconstriction Involuntary Cardiac Muscle Wall of the heartPumps blood through heart Involuntary
25-13 Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle fibers –Contract in response to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine –After contraction, muscles release the enzyme acetylcholinesterase Breaks down acetylcholine Allows muscle to relax
25-14 Smooth Muscle Multiunit smooth muscles – respond to neurotransmitters and hormones Visceral smooth muscles –Responds to neurotransmitters ~ acetylcholine and norepinephrine –Stimulate each other to contract ~ peristalsis
25-15 Cardiac Muscle Intercalated discs –Connect groups of cardiac muscle –Allow the heart to work as a pump Self-exciting Responds to neurotransmitters –Acetylcholine –Norepinephrine
25-16 Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ___ Self-exciting ___ Contract in response to acetylcholine ___ Stimulate each other to contract ___ Peristalsis ___ Slowed by acetylcholine ___ Voluntary movement C A A B B Very Good! C ANSWER: A.Skeletal Muscle B.Smooth muscle C.Cardiac muscle
25-17 Production of Energy for Muscle ATP Muscle cells make ATP by –Creatine phosphate ~ rapid production of energy –Aerobic respiration ~ uses bodys store of glucose –Lactic acid production from pyruvic acid
25-18 Muscle fatigue Oxygen Debt Strenuous use of skeletal muscles depletes cells of oxygen To liver for conversion to glucose, requiring more energy and oxygen to make ATP Pyruvic Acid Lactic acid Oxygen debt
25-19 Muscle Fatigue Loses ability to contract Causes –Accumulation of lactic acid –Interruption of the blood supply –Acetylcholine not released by motor neuron
25-20 Match the following: ___ Rapid production of energy ___ Needed for sustained or repeated muscle contractions ___ Uses bodys store of glucose ___ Muscle fatigue ___ With strenuous exercise, converts to lactic acid Apply Your Knowledge A.Lactic acid B.Pyruvic acid C.ATP D.Aerobic respiration E.Creatine phosphate C A D B E ANSWER: Yippee!
25-21 Structure of Skeletal Muscles Skeletal muscles – the major organs of the muscular system Composition –Connective tissue –Skeletal muscle tissue –Blood vessels –Nerves
25-23 Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: __Thin covering under the fascia that surrounds the muscle __Separates muscles from each other __Connects muscles to bones __Divides a muscle into sections called fascicles __Surrounds individual muscle cells __Attaches muscles to other muscles A.Tendon B.Perimysium C.Aponeurosis D.Epimysium E.Fascia F.Endomysium E A B F C D ANSWER:
25-24 Attachments and Actions of Skeletal Muscles Attachment types –Origin ~ for a less movable bone –Insertion ~ for a more movable bone
25-25 Attachments and Actions of Skeletal Muscles (cont.) Movement –Prime mover (agonist) ~ responsible for most of the movement –Synergists ~ help the prime mover by stabilizing joints –Antagonist ~ produces movement opposite to prime mover
25-26 Attachments and Actions of Skeletal Muscles (cont.) Flexion Extension Hyperextension Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Abduction Adduction Figure of Body Movements
25-28 Attachments and Actions of Skeletal Muscles (cont.) Rotation Circumduction Pronation Supination Rotation Circumduction Supination Pronation
25-29 Attachments and Actions of Skeletal Muscles (cont.) Inversion Eversion Retraction Protraction Elevation Depression Figure of movements
25-30 Attachments and Actions of Skeletal Muscles (cont.) Inversion Eversion Protraction Retraction Elevation Depression Back
25-31 Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: True or false? An agonist is the muscle that produces a movement opposite to a prime mover. Synergists stabilize joints. Origin is an attachment site for the less moveable bone during muscle contraction. Insertion is an attachment site for the more moveable bone during muscle contraction. T F T T antagonist
25-32 Major Skeletal Muscles Name often describes muscle by –Location –Size –Action –Shape –Number of attachments
25-34 Muscles of the Head Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis Muscles of the jaw Masseter Temporalis Muscles of facial expression –Frontalis –Orbicularis oris –Orbiuclaris oculi –Zygomaticus –Platysma Skeletal muscles
25-35 Arm Muscles Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Deltoid Subscapularis Infraspinatus Skeletal muscles
25-42 Leg Muscles Iliopsoas major Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius and minimus Adductor longus and magnus Skeletal muscles
25-43 Leg Muscles (cont.) Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius Sartoris Skeletal muscles
25-44 Ankle, Foot, and Toe Muscles Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Gastrocnemius Soleus Flexor digitorum longus Skeletal muscles
25-45 Apply Your Knowledge Matching: raises the eyebrows chewing expand and lower ribs compress the abdominal wall extends the thigh extends the leg at the knee A.Gluteus maximus B.Intercostals C.Frontalis D.Quadriceps group E.Obliques F.Masseter ANSWER: Bravo! A B C D E F
25-46 Aging and the Musculoskeletal System Speed and strength of muscle contractions decrease Aging –Decreased dexterity and gripping ability –Decreased mobility Assistive devices helpful Routine exercise
25-47 Diseases and Disorders of the Muscular System DiseaseDescription BotulismAffects the gastrointestinal tract and various muscle groups FibromyalgiaFairly common condition that causes chronic pain primarily in joints, muscles, and tendons Muscular dystrophy Inherited disorder characterized by muscle weakness and a loss of muscle tissue Myasthenia gravis Autoimmune condition in which patients experience muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue
25-48 Diseases and Disorders of the Muscular System (cont.) DiseaseDescription RhabdomyolysisKidneys become damaged because of toxins released from muscle cells after serious muscle injuries TendonitisPainful inflammation of a tendon and the tendon-muscle attachment to a bone Tetanus (lockjaw) Muscle spasms in the jaw, keck and facial muscles; high mortality rate
25-49 Diseases and Disorders of the Muscular System (cont.) DiseaseDescription Torticollis (wryneck) A cervical deformity in which the head bends toward the affected side while the chin rotates to the opposite side TrichinosisAn infection caused by parasites ingested by eating undercooked meat
25-50 Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: Speed and strength of muscle contractions decrease with aging. The aging process results in: Decreased dexterity and gripping ability Decreased mobility 1.What changes occur to the muscular system as a result of aging?
25-51 Apply Your Knowledge True or False: Botulism is a condition resulting in chronic pain in joints, muscles and tendons. Kidney damage due to toxins released by serious muscle injuries is the condition called rhabdomyolysis. Tetanus is caused by a toxin and causes muscle spasms in the jaw, neck, and facial muscles. Lockjaw is caused by spasm or shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. ANSWER: T T F F Fibromyalgia Torticollis
25-52 In Summary 25.1The functions of muscles include movement, stability, control of body openings and passages, and the production of heat. Valve- like muscular structures called sphincters control passage of substances into and out of organs like the stomach and bladder.. 25.2 The three types of muscle tissue are striated, voluntary skeletal muscle; smooth, involuntary visceral muscle; and specialized striated and involuntary cardiac muscle.
25-53 In Summary (cont.) 25.3 There are three ways muscles create energy. Creatine phosphate, aerobic respiration, and lactic acid production. 25.4 Skeletal muscle is composed of connective tissues, skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, and nerves. The coverings of skeletal muscles include fascia, tendon, aponeurosis, epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium.
25-54 In Summary (cont.) 25.5 The origin of a muscle is the attachment site of the muscle to the less moveable bone during muscle contraction. The insertion of a muscle is the attachment site for the muscle to the more moveable bone during muscle contraction. 25.6 The major muscles of the head and the upper extremity, major respiratory muscles, abdominal muscles, pectoral girdle muscles and those of the lower extremity are covered in this learning outcome.
25-55 In Summary (cont.) 22.7 The common diseases of aging include arthritis, fractures, osteoporosis, and muscular decline. Aging causes a decline in strength and speed of muscle contractions. Dexterity and gripping abilities lessen and mobility often decreases related to skeletal and muscular decline. 22.8 There are many common diseases and disorders of the muscular system with varied signs, symptoms, and treatments.
25-56 Everyone has a risk muscle. You keep it in shape by trying new things. If you dont, it atrophies. Make a point of using it at least once a day. ~Roger von Oech End of Chapter 25