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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 6.1 – 6.17 Seventh Edition Elaine.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 6.1 – 6.17 Seventh Edition Elaine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 6.1 – 6.17 Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 6 The Muscular System Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook

2 The Muscular System Slide 6.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement Three basic muscle types are found in the body Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

3 Characteristics of Muscles Slide 6.2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber) Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments All muscles share some terminology Prefix myo refers to muscle Prefix mys refers to muscle Prefix sarco refers to flesh

4 Skeletal Muscle Characteristics Slide 6.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most are attached by tendons to bones Cells are multinucleate Striated – have visible banding Voluntary – subject to conscious control Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue

5 Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.4a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endomysium – around single muscle fiber Perimysium – around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers Figure 6.1

6 Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.4b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epimysium – covers the entire skeletal muscle Fascia – on the outside of the epimysium Figure 6.1

7 Skeletal Muscle Attachments Slide 6.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment Tendon – cord-like structure Aponeuroses – sheet-like structure Sites of muscle attachment Bones Cartilages Connective tissue coverings

8 Smooth Muscle Characteristics Slide 6.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Has no striations Spindle-shaped cells Single nucleus Involuntary – no conscious control Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs Figure 6.2a

9 Cardiac Muscle Characteristics Slide 6.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Has striations Usually has a single nucleus Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc Involuntary Found only in the heart Figure 6.2b

10 Function of Muscles Slide 6.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Produce movement Maintain posture Stabilize joints Generate heat

11 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.9a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cells are multinucleate Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma Figure 6.3a

12 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.9b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sarcolemma – specialized plasma membrane Sarcoplasmic reticulum – specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum Figure 6.3a

13 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.10a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Myofibril Bundles of myofilaments Myofibrils are aligned to give distrinct bands I band = light band A band = dark band Figure 6.3b

14 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.10b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sarcomere Contractile unit of a muscle fiber Figure 6.3b

15 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.11a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organization of the sarcomere Thick filaments = myosin filaments Composed of the protein myosin Has ATPase enzymes Figure 6.3c

16 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.11b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organization of the sarcomere Thin filaments = actin filaments Composed of the protein actin Figure 6.3c

17 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.12a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Myosin filaments have heads (extensions, or cross bridges) Myosin and actin overlap somewhat Figure 6.3d

18 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.12b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings At rest, there is a bare zone that lacks actin filaments Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) – for storage of calcium Figure 6.3d

19 Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity Slide 6.13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Irritability – ability to receive and respond to a stimulus Contractility – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received

20 Nerve Stimulus to Muscles Slide 6.14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract Motor unit One neuron Muscle cells stimulated by that neuron Figure 6.4a

21 Nerve Stimulus to Muscles Slide 6.15a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neuromuscular junctions – association site of nerve and muscle Figure 6.5b

22 Nerve Stimulus to Muscles Slide 6.15b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synaptic cleft – gap between nerve and muscle Nerve and muscle do not make contact Area between nerve and muscle is filled with interstitial fluid Figure 6.5b

23 Transmission of Nerve Impulse to Muscle Slide 6.16a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neurotransmitter – chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is acetylcholine Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma Sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium (Na + )

24 Transmission of Nerve Impulse to Muscle Slide 6.16b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sodium rushing into the cell generates an action potential Once started, muscle contraction cannot be stopped

25 The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction Slide 6.17a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Activation by nerve causes myosin heads (crossbridges) to attach to binding sites on the thin filament Myosin heads then bind to the next site of the thin filament Figure 6.7

26 The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction Slide 6.17b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings This continued action causes a sliding of the myosin along the actin The result is that the muscle is shortened (contracted) Figure 6.7

27 Types of Ordinary Body Movements Slide 6.32 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flexion Extension Rotation Abduction Circumduction

28 Body Movements Slide 6.33 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.13

29 Special Movements Slide 6.34 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dorsifelxion Plantar flexion Inversion Eversion Supination Pronation Opposition

30 Types of Muscles Slide 6.35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prime mover – muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement Antagonist – muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover Synergist – muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation Fixator – stabilizes the origin of a prime mover

31 Naming of Skeletal Muscles Slide 6.36a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Direction of muscle fibers Example: rectus (straight) Relative size of the muscle Example: maximus (largest)

32 Naming of Skeletal Muscles Slide 6.36b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Location of the muscle Example: many muscles are named for bones (e.g., temporalis) Number of origins Example: triceps (three heads)

33 Naming of Skeletal Muscles Slide 6.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Location of the muscles origin and insertion Example: sterno (on the sternum) Shape of the muscle Example: deltoid (triangular) Action of the muscle Example: flexor and extensor (flexes or extends a bone)

34 Head and Neck Muscles Slide 6.38 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.14

35 Trunk Muscles Slide 6.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.15

36 Deep Trunk and Arm Muscles Slide 6.40 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.16

37 Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh Slide 6.41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.18c

38 Muscles of the Lower Leg Slide 6.42 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.19

39 Superficial Muscles: Anterior Slide 6.43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.20

40 Superficial Muscles: Posterior Slide 6.44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.21


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