2GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS 6GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONSUnderstanding GroupsUnderstanding OrganizationsOrganizational ChangeTechnology’s Impact on the WorkplaceSocial Policy and Organizations: The State of the Unions
3Understanding Groups Types of Groups Group A number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis.Examples of groups are:fraternitiesdance companiesClubstenants’ associations
4Understanding Groups Types of Groups Primary Group Secondary Group This term refers to a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.Secondary GroupThis term refers to formal, impersonal groups in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.
5Understanding Groups Primary Group Secondary Group Table 6.1: Comparison of Primary and Secondary GroupsPrimary Group Secondary GroupGenerally small Usually largeRelatively long Relatively short duration,period of interaction often temporaryIntimate, face-to-face Little social intimacyassociation or mutual understandingSome emotional Relationships generallydepth in relationships superficialCooperative, friendly More formal and impersonal
6Understanding Groups Types of Groups In-Groups Out-Groups In-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they belong.Out-GroupsOut-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they do not belong.
7Understanding Groups Studying Small Groups Small Groups Small groups are groups small enough for all members to interact simultaneously (to talk with one another or at least be well acquainted).
8Understanding Groups Focus Groups 10–15 people assembled by a researcher to discuss a predetermined topic, such as a new product or a need in the community.Developed by Robert Merton and colleagues at Columbia University
9Understanding Groups Reference Groups A reference group is any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating their own behavior.Reference groups set and enforce standards of conduct and beliefReference groups serve as a standard against which people can evaluate themselves and others.
10Understanding Groups Studying Small Groups Size of Group Smaller groups have greater interaction opportunities.Dyad: A two-member group.Triad: A three-member group.Coalition: A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal.
11Understanding Organizations Formal Organizations and BureaucraciesFormal OrganizationA formal organization is a special-purpose group designed and structured for maximum efficiency.Examples of formal organizations:the U.S. Post OfficeMcDonald’s restaurantsthe Boston Popsthis college
12Understanding Organizations CoalitionsAn alliance geared towards a common goal-The effects of group size and coalitionsSurvivor
13Understanding Organizations Characteristics of a BureaucracyBureaucracyA bureaucracy is a component of formal organization in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiency.Ideal Type BureaucracyThis term indicates a construct or model serving as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated.
14Understanding Organizations Formal Organizations and BureaucraciesA formal organization is a group designed for a special purpose, structured for efficiency.U.S. Postal ServiceMcDonald’sYour college or university
15Understanding Organizations Table 6.2: Characteristics of a BureaucracyNegative ConsequenceCharacteristic Positive Consequence For the Individual For the OrganizationDivision of labor Produces efficiency in Produces trained Produces a narrow large-scale corporation incapacity perspectiveHierarchy of authority Clarifies who is in Deprives employees Permits concealment of command of a voice in decision mistakesmakingWritten rules and Let workers know what Stifle initiative and Lead to goalregulations is expected of them imagination displacementImpersonality Reduces bias Contributes to feelings Discourages loyalty to of alienation companyEmployment based on Discourages favoritism Discourages ambition Fosters Peter principletechnical qualifications and reduces petty to improve oneselfrivalries elsewhere
16Understanding Organizations Characteristics of a BureaucracyBureaucratizationBureaucratization is the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.OligarchyAn oligarchy is a bureaucracy ruled by a few.
17Understanding Organizations Bureaucracy and Organizational CultureScientific Management ApproachWorkers are motivated by economic rewards.Productivity is limited by physical restraints of the workers.Human Relations ApproachThe roles of people, communication and participation within a bureaucracy are emphasized.Workers’ feelings, frustrations and emotional needs are the focus of this approach.
18Understanding Organizations Organization Chart: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (I)Aerospace Safety Advisory PanelNASA Advisory CouncilInspector GeneralOffice of the AdministratorChief Financial OfficerGeneral CounselEqual Opportunity ProgramsExternal RelationsLegislative AffairsHuman Resources and EducationProcurementPublic AffairsPolicy and PlansManagement Systems and FacilitiesSafety and Mission AssuranceHeadquarters OperationsSmall and Disadvantaged Business UtilizationSTAFFOFFICESPROGRAMSource: Office of the Federal Register The United States Government Manual Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 586.
19Understanding Organizations Organization Chart: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (II)Earth ScienceSpace FlightLife and Micro- gravity Sciences and ApplicationsSpace ScienceAero-space TechnologyGoddard Space Flight CenterLyndon B. Johnson Space CenterJohn F. Kennedy Space CenterGeorge C. Marshall Space Flight CenterJohn C. Stennis Space CenterJet Propulsion LaboratoryAmes Research CenterDryden Flight Research CenterLangley Research CenterJohn H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis FieldOFFICESPROGRAMCENTERSSource: Office of the Federal Register The United States Government Manual Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 586.
20Understanding Organizations Voluntary AssociationsOrganizations established on the basis of common interest, whose members volunteer or even pay to participate.“Formal organizations” and “voluntary organizations” are not mutually exclusive.
21Understanding Organizations Figure 6.1: Membership in Voluntary Associations in the United StatesSource: J. Davis and Smith 2001:347.
22Organizational Change Goal MultiplicationGoal multiplication takes place when an organization expands its purposes.This is generally the result of changing social or economic conditions that threaten the organization’s survival.
23Organizational Change Goal SuccessionGoal succession occurs when a group or organization has either realized or been denied its goal.If it is to continue, it must then identify an entirely new objective.
24Technology’s Impact on the Workplace TelecommutingTelecommuters are employees who work full-time or part-time at home rather than in an outside office.Telecommuters are linked to their supervisors and colleagues through computers, phones, and fax machines.Telecommuting may move society further along the continuum from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft.
25Technology’s Impact on the Workplace Electronic CommunicationBenefitsis efficient, rapidly communicated, and democratic.gives an organization the benefit of experiences and views of more of its workforce.
26Technology’s Impact on the Workplace Electronic CommunicationDisadvantagesis so easy to do that it can inundate a worker with too many messages.doesn’t convey body language which in face-to-face communication can soften insensitive phrasing and make unpleasant messages (such as a reprimand) easier to take.leaves a permanent record which can be a problem when messages are written in a reckless and thoughtless manner.
27Social Policy and Socialization The State of the UnionsThe IssueWhat has happened to diminish the importance of organized labor unions?Have unions perhaps outlived their usefulness in a rapidly changing global economy dominated by the service industry?
28Social Policy and Organizations The State of the UnionsThe SettingLabor unions consist of organized workers sharing either the same skill or the same employer.The experience of unions varies widely in different countries.Continued...
29Social Policy and Organizations The State of the UnionsThe SettingReasons given for the decline of labor unions:Changes in the type of industryGrowth in part-time jobsThe legal systemGlobalizationEmployer offensiveUnion rigidity and bureaucratization
30Social Policy and Organizations The State of the UnionsSociological InsightsBoth Marxists and functionalists would view unions as a logical response to the emergence of impersonal, large-scale, formal, and often alienating organizations.Conflict theorists would point out that the longer union leaders are in office the less responsive they are to the needs and demands of the rank and file and the more concerned they are with maintaining their own positions.Many union employees encounter role conflict.
31Social Policy and Organizations The State of the UnionsPolicy InitiativesA major barrier to union growth exists in the 20 states that have so-called right to work laws.Debate over campaign finance reform in Congress in 2001 raised the question of whether labor unions should be able to use dues to support a particular candidate or promote a position.
32Social Policy and Organizations Figure 6.2: Union Membership in the United StatesSource: Developed by the author based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics 2003: National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation