Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective ORGANIZING SOCIAL LIFE part McGraw-Hill 2 © 2005.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective ORGANIZING SOCIAL LIFE part McGraw-Hill 2 © 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective ORGANIZING SOCIAL LIFE part McGraw-Hill 2 © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 chapter McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER OUTLINE Understanding Groups Understanding Organizations Organizational Change Technologys Impact on the Workplace Social Policy and Organizations: The State of the UnionsSocial Policy and Organizations: The State of the Unions 6 GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS

3 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Understanding Groups Types of Groups –Group A number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis. Examples of groups are: –fraternities –dance companies –Clubs –tenants associations

4 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Understanding Groups Types of Groups –Primary Group This term refers to a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation. –Secondary Group This term refers to formal, impersonal groups in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.

5 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Understanding Groups Table 6.1: Comparison of Primary and Secondary Groups Generally small Usually large Relatively long Relatively short duration, period of interaction often temporary Intimate, face-to-face Little social intimacy association or mutual understanding Some emotional Relationships generally depth in relationships superficial Cooperative, friendly More formal and impersonal Primary GroupSecondary Group

6 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Understanding Groups Types of Groups –In-Groups In-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they belong. –Out-Groups Out-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they do not belong.

7 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Understanding Groups Studying Small Groups –Small Groups Small groups are groups small enough for all members to interact simultaneously (to talk with one another or at least be well acquainted).

8 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Understanding Groups Focus Groups –10–15 people assembled by a researcher to discuss a predetermined topic, such as a new product or a need in the community. –Developed by Robert Merton and colleagues at Columbia University

9 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Understanding Groups Reference Groups –A reference group is any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating their own behavior. Reference groups set and enforce standards of conduct and belief Reference groups serve as a standard against which people can evaluate themselves and others.

10 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Understanding Groups Studying Small Groups –Size of Group Smaller groups have greater interaction opportunities. –Dyad: A two-member group. –Triad: A three-member group. –Coalition: A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal.

11 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Understanding Organizations Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies –Formal Organization A formal organization is a special-purpose group designed and structured for maximum efficiency. –Examples of formal organizations: the U.S. Post Office McDonalds restaurants the Boston Pops this college

12 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Understanding Organizations Coalitions –An alliance geared towards a common goal -The effects of group size and coalitions – Survivor

13 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Understanding Organizations Characteristics of a Bureaucracy –Bureaucracy A bureaucracy is a component of formal organization in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiency. –Ideal Type Bureaucracy This term indicates a construct or model serving as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated.

14 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Understanding Organizations Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies –A formal organization is a group designed for a special purpose, structured for efficiency. U.S. Postal Service McDonalds Your college or university

15 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Understanding Organizations Table 6.2: Characteristics of a Bureaucracy Division of labor Produces efficiency in Produces trained Produces a narrow large-scale corporation incapacity perspective Hierarchy of authority Clarifies who is in Deprives employees Permits concealment of command of a voice in decision mistakes making Written rules and Let workers know what Stifle initiative and Lead to goal regulations is expected of them imagination displacement Impersonality Reduces bias Contributes to feelings Discourages loyalty to of alienation company Employment based on Discourages favoritism Discourages ambition Fosters Peter principle technical qualifications and reduces petty to improve oneself rivalries elsewhere Negative Consequence CharacteristicPositive ConsequenceFor the IndividualFor the Organization

16 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Understanding Organizations Characteristics of a Bureaucracy –Bureaucratization Bureaucratization is the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic. –Oligarchy An oligarchy is a bureaucracy ruled by a few.

17 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Understanding Organizations Bureaucracy and Organizational Culture –Scientific Management Approach Workers are motivated by economic rewards. Productivity is limited by physical restraints of the workers. –Human Relations Approach The roles of people, communication and participation within a bureaucracy are emphasized. Workers feelings, frustrations and emotional needs are the focus of this approach.

18 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Understanding Organizations Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel NASA Advisory Council Inspector General Office of the Administrator Chief Financial Officer General Counsel Equal Opportunity Programs External Relations Legislative Affairs Human Resources and Education Procurement Public Affairs Policy and Plans Management Systems and Facilities Safety and Mission Assurance Headquarters Operations Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization STAFFOFFICES PROGRAM Source: Office of the Federal Register The United States Government Manual Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, p Organization Chart: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (I)

19 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Understanding Organizations Earth Science Space Flight Life and Micro- gravity Sciences and Applications Space Science Aero-space Technology Goddard Space Flight Center Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center George C. Marshall Space Flight Center John C. Stennis Space Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Center Langley Research Center John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field OFFICES PROGRAM CENTERS Source: Office of the Federal Register The United States Government Manual Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, p Organization Chart: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (II)

20 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Understanding Organizations Voluntary Associations –Voluntary Associations Organizations established on the basis of common interest, whose members volunteer or even pay to participate. Formal organizations and voluntary organizations are not mutually exclusive.

21 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Understanding Organizations Figure 6.1: Membership in Voluntary Associations in the United States Source: J. Davis and Smith 2001:347.

22 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Organizational Change Goal Multiplication –Goal Multiplication Goal multiplication takes place when an organization expands its purposes. This is generally the result of changing social or economic conditions that threaten the organizations survival.

23 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Organizational Change Goal Succession –Goal Succession Goal succession occurs when a group or organization has either realized or been denied its goal. If it is to continue, it must then identify an entirely new objective.

24 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Technologys Impact on the Workplace Telecommuting –Telecommuters are employees who work full-time or part-time at home rather than in an outside office. –Telecommuters are linked to their supervisors and colleagues through computers, phones, and fax machines. –Telecommuting may move society further along the continuum from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft.

25 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Technologys Impact on the Workplace Electronic Communication – Benefits is efficient, rapidly communicated, and democratic. gives an organization the benefit of experiences and views of more of its workforce.

26 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Technologys Impact on the Workplace Electronic Communication – Disadvantages is so easy to do that it can inundate a worker with too many messages. doesnt convey body language which in face-to- face communication can soften insensitive phrasing and make unpleasant messages (such as a reprimand) easier to take. leaves a permanent record which can be a problem when messages are written in a reckless and thoughtless manner.

27 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Social Policy and Socialization The State of the Unions –The Issue What has happened to diminish the importance of organized labor unions? Have unions perhaps outlived their usefulness in a rapidly changing global economy dominated by the service industry?

28 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Social Policy and Organizations The State of the Unions –The Setting Labor unions consist of organized workers sharing either the same skill or the same employer. The experience of unions varies widely in different countries. Continued...

29 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Social Policy and Organizations The State of the Unions –The Setting Reasons given for the decline of labor unions: –Changes in the type of industry –Growth in part-time jobs –The legal system –Globalization –Employer offensive –Union rigidity and bureaucratization

30 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Social Policy and Organizations The State of the Unions –Sociological Insights Both Marxists and functionalists would view unions as a logical response to the emergence of impersonal, large-scale, formal, and often alienating organizations. Conflict theorists would point out that the longer union leaders are in office the less responsive they are to the needs and demands of the rank and file and the more concerned they are with maintaining their own positions. Many union employees encounter role conflict.

31 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Social Policy and Organizations The State of the Unions –Policy Initiatives A major barrier to union growth exists in the 20 states that have so-called right to work laws. Debate over campaign finance reform in Congress in 2001 raised the question of whether labor unions should be able to use dues to support a particular candidate or promote a position.

32 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Social Policy and Organizations Figure 6.2: Union Membership in the United States Source: Developed by the author based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics 2003: National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation


Download ppt "McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective ORGANIZING SOCIAL LIFE part McGraw-Hill 2 © 2005."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google