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Chapter 5 Organizing.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Organizing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Organizing

2 Advanced Organizer Managing Engineering and Technology
Management Functions Managing Technology Personal Technology Decision Making Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Research Design Production Quality Marketing Project Management Time Management Ethics Career

3 Chapter Objectives Analyze the different forms of an organization
Explain different organizational structures Describe the differences in line and staff relationships Describe the use and value of teams

4 Legal Forms of Organization
Sole Proprietorship Partnership Corporations S-Corporation Limited Liability Companies Cooperatives

5 Sole Proprietorship Ownership:1 person Legal Restrictions: few
Duration: Life of the Proprietor Taxation: Through personal tax Advantages Simple to operate Owner is free to make all decisions Disadvantages Owner faces unlimited liability Difficult to raise capital

6 Partnership Ownership: 2 or More Legal Restrictions: Few Duration:
Taxation: Through personal tax Advantages Pooling of management skills, financial strength Disadvantages Divided decision-making authority Partners face unlimited liability

7 Corporations Ownership: Shareholders Legal Restrictions: many
Duration: Perpetual Taxation: Double taxes Advantages Easy to raise capital, Easy to transfer ownership, and change mgmt. Disadvantages Difficult to organize Double taxes

8 S-Corporation Ownership: Shareholders Legal Restrictions: many
Duration: No perpetual life Taxation: Through personal tax Restrictions No more than 75 owners Only one class of stock No retained earnings

9 Limited Liability Companies (LLC)
Ownership: Members Duration: Perpetual (in most of states) Taxation: Through personal tax Advantages Limited liabilities No limitation on the number of members May issue more than one class of stock

10 Cooperatives Ownership: Users Legal Restrictions: Duration:
Taxation: Tax-free Advantages  Disadvantages 

11 Organizing: Identification and classification of required activities
Grouping of activities necessary to attain objectives Assignment of each grouping to a manager with authority Provision for coordination horizontally and vertically

12 Purpose of Organizing “Organizations are not built to serve customers; they are built to preserve internal order. To customers, the internal structure may not only mean very little; it may serve as a barrier. “Organizational charts are vertical and serving the customers is horizontal.” George Fisher, CEO, Motorola

13 Patterns of Departmentation
Function Product Geographic location Type of customers Process or equipment Shift or time Numbers

14 Span of Control Number of people reporting directly to each manager
Number of relationships: n [2(n-1) + n – 1] Subordinate training Nature of job supervised Rate of change of activities and personnel Clarity of instruction and delegation Staff assistance

15 Line & Staff Relationships
Line functions: those accomplish the main mission of the organization, e.g. production, sales, finance, etc Staff functions: those help the line accomplish the objectives by providing some sort of advice or service Personal staff Specialized staff: serve the entire organization, e.g., personnel, procurement, legal counsel, market research

16 Line & Staff Relationships
Line relationships: Superior-subordinate relationships (chain of command) typically represented vertically in organizational charts Staff relationships: Advisory in nature, degree of influence may vary Provide advice on request Recommendations when appropriate Must be consulted by line but have no direct authority Concurring authority - veto authority over line

17 Line and Staff Relationships
Service: Centralized support functions Custodial Security Medical

18 Line and Staff Relationships

19 Modern Organization Structures
Project and Other Temporary Organizations Impact of Information Revolution

20 Project and Other Temporary Organizations
Matrix management Team Organization

21 Teams Small group of people Serve interests of its members
Exchange ideas freely and clearly Have common goals Committed to achieving goals Each team member treated equally

22 Impact of Information Revolution
Computer Internet Intranet

23 Computer Technology’s Impact on the Work Force
Factory workers will require a higher level of skills Visualization Conceptual thinking Knowledge of production process Statistical inference Oral and visual communication Attentiveness Individual responsibility

24 Impact of Information Revolution
Disappearance of job security Shared responsibility of employers (providing opportunity) and employees (self-improving) Increasing demand for professional & technical workers Decreasing demand for operators, laborers, craftsmen, clerical staff, and farm workers. Reduced real wages Continuing downsizing of staff, longer working hours under high stress. Increases in part-time, contract, and self-employed workers.

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