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Human Communication THIRD EDITION Judy C. Pearson Paul E. Nelson Scott Titsworth Lynn Harter C H A P T E R The Dynamics of Small-Group Communication N.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Communication THIRD EDITION Judy C. Pearson Paul E. Nelson Scott Titsworth Lynn Harter C H A P T E R The Dynamics of Small-Group Communication N."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Communication THIRD EDITION Judy C. Pearson Paul E. Nelson Scott Titsworth Lynn Harter C H A P T E R The Dynamics of Small-Group Communication N I N E McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Chapter 9 Objectives Define small-group communication and state why it is important Recognize different types of groups Define leadership and explain its relevance to small-group communication Explain how culture develops in small groups

3 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Chapter 9 Objectives Identify steps in the small-group decision-making process Discuss how technology can be used to facilitate small-group communication Utilize skills necessary for effective and ethical group communication Recognize strategies for ethically managing group conflict

4 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Why Should You Learn About Small Groups? To meet our need for inclusion, affection and control Groups are everywhere To learn a highly valued skill To become an effective group member To participate in the democratic process

5 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 What is Small-Group Communication? The interaction between three to nine people who are working together to achieve an interdependent goal

6 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Types and Functions of Small Groups Task-oriented groups –Secondary groups Relationship-oriented groups –Primary groups Assigned groups Emergent groups

7 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 What is Leadership? A process of using communication to influence the behaviors and attitudes of others to meet group goals

8 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 The Role of Leadership in Small Groups Types of Small Group Leaders –Designated leaders Elected or appointed to a leadership position –Emergent leaders Becomes an informal leader by exerting influence

9 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 The Role of Leadership in Small Groups Power and Group Leadership –Distributive power –Integrative power –Designated power

10 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 The Role of Leadership in Small Groups Sources of Power in Groups –Reward power –Punishment power –Coercion –Referent power –Expert power

11 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Three Approaches to Effective Leadership Leadership Styles –Democratic leaders Encourage member participation –Laissez-faire leaders Take no initiative for structuring group discussion –Autocratic leaders Maintain strict control over the group

12 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Three Approaches to Effective Leadership Leadership as Communication Competence –Focus is on communicative behaviors used to exercise influence –Two competencies used by leaders Task Interpersonal

13 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Three Approaches to Effective Leadership Leadership as Planning –Know the task at hand –Know the people –Collect information –Distribute leadership –Organize the discussion

14 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Establishing Culture in Small Groups Group Norms –Informal rules for group interaction

15 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Establishing Culture in Small Groups Group Norms Role Structure –Formal and informal roles –Behavioral functions Task functions Maintenance functions Self-centered functions

16 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Establishing Culture in Small Groups Group Norms Role Structure Group Cohesiveness –Trust, supportiveness, cohesiveness –Groupthink

17 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Establishing Culture in Small Groups Group Norms Role Structure Group Cohesiveness Group Diversity –Within-group diversity –Gender diversity –Cultural diversity

18 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Problem Solving and Decision Making Characteristics of group problem solving –Multiple perspectives –Takes longer –Well suited for conjunctive tasks –More effective when the process is systematic and organized

19 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Problem Solving and Decision Making Effective group problem solving –Wording the discussion question Is it a question of fact, value, or policy? Is it stated clearly? Is it measurable? Does it focus on the problem?

20 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Problem Solving and Decision Making Effective group problem solving –Wording the discussion question –Discussing criteria for judging solutions Absolute criteria Important criteria

21 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Problem Solving and Decision Making Effective group problem solving –Wording the discussion question –Discussing criteria for judging solutions –Identifying alternatives Brainstorming

22 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Problem Solving and Decision Making Effective group problem solving –Wording the discussion question –Discussing criteria for judging solutions –Identifying alternatives –Evaluating alternatives

23 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 The Functions of Group Work Solving problems Making decisions Negotiating conflict Fostering creativity Maintaining ties to stakeholders

24 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Technology and Group Communication Processes Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) –Advantages Anonymous and efficient –Disadvantages Expensive and impractical

25 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Making Your Small Group Communication Effective Relate your statements to preceding remarks Use conventional word arrangements Speak concisely State one point at a time

26 McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Being an Ethical Group Member Be trustworthy and supportive Be honest and truthful Be thorough and unbiased when evaluating information Behave with integrity Manage group conflict ethically


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