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Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1 CHAPTER FOURTEEN CHAPTER FOURTEEN Motivation Prepared by Deborah.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1 CHAPTER FOURTEEN CHAPTER FOURTEEN Motivation Prepared by Deborah."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1 CHAPTER FOURTEEN CHAPTER FOURTEEN Motivation Prepared by Deborah Baker Texas Christian University Effective Management 2nd Edition Chuck Williams Effective Management 2nd Edition Chuck Williams

2 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 2 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Effort and Performance  Job performance  how well someone performs the job  Motivation  effort put forth on the job  Ability  capability to do the job  Situational Constraints  external factors affecting performance 1.1 Job Performance = Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints

3 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 3 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Needs Classification Adapted From Exhibit McClelland’s Learned Needs McClelland’s Alderfer’sERGAlderfer’sERGMaslow’sHierarchyMaslow’sHierarchy Higher- Order Needs Lower- Order Needs Self- Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence Power Achievement Affiliation

4 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 4 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Equity Theory  Inputs  employee contributions to the organization  Outcomes  rewards employees receive from the organization  Referents  comparison others  Outcome/input (O/I) ratio Outcomes self Inputs self Outcomes other Inputs other = 2.1

5 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 5 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Motivating with Equity Theory  Look for and correct major inequities  Reduce employees’ inputs  Make sure decision-making processes are fair  distributive justice  procedural justice 2.3

6 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 6 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Components of Expectancy Theory Valence Expectancy Instrumentality 3 Motivation = Valence X Expectancy X Instrumentality

7 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 7 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Motivating with Expectancy Theory  Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs  Clearly link rewards to individual performance  Empower employees to make decisions which enhance expectancy perceptions 3.2

8 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 8 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Components of Reinforcement Theory  Positive reinforcement  desirable consequence strengthens behavior  Negative reinforcement  withholding unpleasant consequence strengthens behavior  Punishment  unpleasant consequence weakens behavior  Extinction  no consequence weakens behavior 4.1

9 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 9 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Continuous Continuous Intermittent 4.2

10 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 10 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Motivating with Reinforcement Theory  Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, and evaluate  Don’t reinforce the wrong behavior  Correctly administer punishment at the appropriate time  Choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement 4.3

11 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 11 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Goal-Setting Theory  Goal Specificity  the clarity of goals  Goal Difficulty  how challenging goals are  Goal Acceptance  how well goals are agreed to or understood  Performance Feedback  information on goal progress 5.1

12 Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 12 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory  Assign specific, challenging goals  Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals  Provide frequent, specific performance-related feedback 5.2


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