2Chapter 13 How do human needs influence motivation to work? How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work?How does reinforcement influence motivation to work?
313.1 Human Needs and Job Design Maslow described a hierarchy of needs topped by self-actualizationAlderfer’s ERG theory deals with existence, relatedness and growth needsMcClelland identified acquired needs for achievement, power and affiliationHerzberg’s two-factor theory focuses on higher-order need satisfactionThe core characteristics model integrates motivation and job design
4HUMAN NEEDS Maslow’s Hierarchy Motivation – level, direction and persistence of effort expended at workMaslow’s hierarchyNeedsUnfulfilled desires that stimulate people to actLower order needsPhysiological, safety and social needsHigher order needsEsteem and self-actualizationMaslow’s hierarchy of needs seems to indicate that higher level needs cannot be satisfied until lower needs are satisfied. This may be true. However, it is very likely that people move up and down Maslow’s scale during their life. Just because you are safe today, does not mean that you will be safe tomorrow. Many who lost their jobs in the recent economic crises discovered this the hard way.
5HUMAN NEEDS Maslow’s Hierarchy Employers have many options to motivate employees at every level. The trick is to understand the individuals well enough to know how they are motivated.
6HUMAN NEEDS Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence Needsare desires for physiological and material well-being. Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.Relatedness Needsare desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.Growth Needsare desires for continued psychological growth and development.Alderfer’s ERG theory can be thought of as a short form version of Maslow’s hierarchy. Alderfer claimed that these needs exist, in various degrees, simultaneously.
7HUMAN NEEDS McClelland’s Acquired Needs Three acquired needs that vary in strength among peopleNeed for Achievementis the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.Need for Poweris the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people.Need for AffiliationIs the desire to establish and maintain good relations with other people.Although not exactly the same, McClelland’s acquired needs are similar to Alderfer’s ERG theory needs.
8HUMAN NEEDS McClelland’s Acquired Needs Two forms of need for powerNeed for personal powerNeed for social powerPersonal power is manipulative, social power is more socially responsible.
9HUMAN NEEDS Herzberg Two-Factor Theory Herzberg defined motivation as “getting others to want to do what you want them to do.” There is a big difference between getting others to do something and getting them to want to do it.
10JOB DESIGN Core Characteristics Model Allocation of specific tasks to individuals and groupsJob enrichmentAdds opportunities for satisfying higher-order needs to a job by adding opportunities for planning and controlling workThe basic theory behind core characteristics is that if people have a job that is interesting and rewarding, motivation will follow. Some jobs are limited in the amount of enrichment that can be added like the one pictured here.
11JOB DESIGN Core Characteristics Model Five Core Job CharacteristicsSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedback from the job itselfJob enrichment attempts to build elements of all five core job characteristics in each job.
12JOB DESIGN Core Characteristics Model Job enrichment attempts to build elements of all five core job characteristics in each job.
1313.2 Thought Processes and Decisions Equity theory explains how social comparisons motivate individual behaviorExpectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valenceGoal-setting theory shows that well-chosen and well-set goals can be motivatingThe following theories attempt to more closely relate individual needs to work performance.
14THOUGHT PROCESSES Equity Theory Equity theory explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behaviorPerceived negative inequityAttempt to restore equity by working less or quittingPerceived positive inequityAttempt to restore equity by extra effortAdams believed that humans seek equity in their personal and professional lives. If they perceive that they are not being treated fairly, they will take action to change the situation.
15THOUGHT PROCESSES Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valenceExpectancy“Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?”Instrumentality“What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?”Valence“How highly do I value work outcomes?”Vroom argued that employees are motivated by their expectations regarding the magnitude of their efforts and the potential compensation that they will receive, as well as the probability of receiving the additional compensation.
16THOUGHT PROCESSES Expectancy Theory Valence can be tricky. Things that managers consider to be rewards may not be valuable to the employee.This chart suggests how Vroom’s expectancy theory might be applied.
17THOUGHT PROCESSES Goal Setting Theory Goal-setting theory shows that well-chosen and well-set goals can be motivatingRemember that, although goals should be challenging, they must be achievable. Employees will not pursue unrealistic goals for very long.
18Punishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences 13.3 ReinforcementOperant conditioning influences behavior by controlling its consequencesPositive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequencesPunishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequencesReinforcement theory addresses how to get employees to do what you want them to do. This is not the same definition put forth by Herzberg which is getting employees to want to do what you want them to do.
19REINFORCEMENT Law of Effect The law of effect states that behavior followed by a pleasant consequence is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by an unpleasant consequence is unlikely to be repeated.In the workplace, consequences are used to reinforce behaviors that are desired such as safety, productivity, positive attitude and professionalism. Often the consequences are administered by a work group to maintain the culture.
20REINFORCEMENT Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning – B. F. SkinnerInfluences behavior by controlling its consequences.Behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeatedBehavior that receives an unpleasant consequence probably won’t be repeated.Positive reinforcement may be as simple as saying “Good Job”. Negative reinforcement might be demonstrated when a manager stops nagging about a behavior when the employee stops doing it.
21REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcement Strengthens positive behaviorApprovalRecognitionRewardsRewards must be administered only for the correct behavior and within a reasonable time frame.
22REINFORCEMENT Negative Reinforcement Unpleasant consequence is avoided if desirable behavior is exhibitedExtinctionDesired consequence is removed if undesirable behavior is exhibitedPunishmentDiscourages a behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrenceRewards must be administered only for the correct behavior and within a reasonable time frame.
23REINFORCEMENT Operant Conditioning Here is an example of how reinforcement theory might be applied in a production environment. Notice the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment.
24REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequencesLaw of contingent reinforcementReward only when desirable behavior is demonstratedLaw of immediate reinforcementReward immediately after the desirable behavior is demonstratedRewards must be administered only for the correct behavior and within a reasonable time frame.
25REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcement ShapingCreating a new behavior by positive reinforcement of similar behaviorsContinuous reinforcementReward every time behavior is exhibitedIntermittent reinforcementReward behavior periodicallyContinuous reinforcement is less confusing than intermittent reinforcement and the desired behavior is learned more quickly.
26REINFORCEMENT Punishment Connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequencesDeny a rewardNo raise/pay reductionReprimandPunishment must be appropriate for the behavior.