Presentation on theme: "Principles of Business Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1Principles of Business Communication OverviewCommunication SkillsNonverbal communicationOral communicationWritten communicationInterpersonal ApplicationsBusiness Applications
2Why Study Communication? The Only Completely Portable SkillYou will use it in every relationshipYou will need it regardless of your career pathThe “Information Age”The history of civilization is the history of informationLanguage and written documents facilitate the transfer of information and knowledge through time and space
3Why Study Communication? Your Quality of Life Depends Primarily on Your Communication SkillsYou Cannot Be Too Good at CommunicationPeople Overestimate Their Own Communication Skills
14The Communication Process MessageDecision-MakingDecision-MakingFiltersBeliefsValuesQuestions &MetaphorsBeh. TypeStateFiltersBeliefsValuesQuestions &MetaphorsBeh. TypeStateSensory DataMeaningMeaningSensory DataEncodingEncodingSenderReceiverChannelThe Bowman Communication Model,
15Metaphor: The Language of Perception Metaphors and SimilesMy love is a flower.My love is like a flower.Core MetaphorsArgument is warBusiness is warBusiness is a sport or a gameBusiness is a building
16Core Metaphors Metaphors, Similes, and Analogies Perceptual Filters Common Operational MetaphorsTime is…Learning is…Men/Women are…Success is...Life is…
17Experience, Language, and Meaning Mental MapsSensory DataExperience
18Symbol Systems 1+1=2 Language Mathematics Money Words and sentences Meaning and labelsMathematicsMoney1+1=2
19History of Communication Nonverbal: 150,000 yearsOral: ,000 yearsWritten: ,000 yearsEarly writing: BCEgyptian hieroglyphics: BCPhoenician alphabet: to 2000 BCBook printing in China: 600 BCBook printing in Europe: AD
20Communicating Meaning Physiology and Appearance: 55 percentParalanguage: percentLanguage: percent
21Sensory Data and Mental Maps Bridge Between Internal and ExternalInternal and External ProcessingInternal ProcessingPosture and breathingLanguage and paralanguageEye accessing cues
23Preferred Sensory Modalities People Use All Their Available SensesSome Prefer VisualSome Prefer AuditorySome Prefer the Kinesthetic ClusterSenses of touch, taste, and smellAssociated emotional responsesSome Prefer “Digital” Processing
24Visuals Vocabulary Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage I see what you mean.It looks good to me.Let’s stay focused on the problem.She has a bright future.He’s always in a fog.Physiology and AppearanceParalanguage
25Auditories Vocabulary Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage I hear what you are saying.It sounds good to me.Does the name Pavlov ring a bell?That’s music to my ears.He’s always blowing his own horn.Physiology and AppearanceParalanguage
26Kinesthetics (Kinos) Vocabulary Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage I can grasp the concept, and it feels right to me.It smells fishy to me.It left me with a bad taste in my mouth.She’s still rough around the edges.He’s a smooth operator.Physiology and AppearanceParalanguage
28Exercise: Observing Eye Movements Ask questions that require internal processing.VisualAuditoryKinestheticTaste or smellTouchEmotions
29Exercise: Flexibility Determine your preferred system.What are you doing when you “think”?Speak for two minutes using predicates from one sensory modality, then do the the same for each of the other two.Work in groups and take turns speaking using sense-based predicates in a systematic way.
30Rapport Finding Commonalities Matching and Mirroring ValuesVocabulary and paralanguagePhysiology and appearanceMatching and MirroringCross-over MatchingPeople who are like each other, like each other.
31Developing Rapport Nonverbal (what you see and do) PhysiologyAppearanceCongruenceVerbal (what you hear and say)Sense-based predicatesValues, beliefs, and criteriaVoice tone and rate of speech
32Reading Nonverbal Messages Sensory AcuityAgree and DisagreePosture and MovementAssociated or dissociatedBodily response
33Exercises: Rapport Matching and Mirroring Observing others Practicing CalibrationLike/dislikeYes/no
35Congruence Physiology Nonverbal and Verbal Messages “Parts” Groups Left/right bodyLeft/right brainNonverbal and Verbal Messages“Parts”Groups
36Strategies The Structure of Subjective Experience Learned Behavior Four-tuplesSyntaxLearned BehaviorTOTE (Test, Operate, Test, Exit)HabitsSkills
37Common Strategies Accommodate Spelling Making Decisions Communicating Auditory (spell “phonics” phonetically)VisualMaking DecisionsCommunicatingListening and speakingWritingAccommodate
38Decision-making Strategies PurchasingAn inexpensive productDinner in a nice restaurantAn expensive product or serviceRelationshipsCareer Choices
39Communication Strategy, 1 & 2 PaceMatch (nonverbally and verbally)Meet expectationsLeadSet directionMaintain interestMaintain rapport
40Communication Strategy, 3 & 4 Blend OutcomesUnderstand objectives and desiresCreate win-win solutionsMotivateClarify who does what nextFuture-pace possibilitiesPresuppose positive results
41Exercise: Eliciting Strategies Ordering a Meal in a RestaurantLearning Something NewTeaching Something for the First Time
42Personal Profiles Achiever Communicator Specialist Perfectionist A C P
43Profile Characteristics AchieverLikes to set goals, challenge the environment and win.Sees life as a competition.CommunicatorLikes to achieve results by working with and through people.Finds more enjoyment in the process than in the results.SpecialistLikes to plan work and relationships.Finds enjoyment in knowing what to expect.PerfectionistEnjoys jobs requiring attention to detail.Complies with authority and tries to provide the “right” answer.
44Metaprograms Action — Initiate or Respond Direction — Toward or Away FromSource — Internal or ExternalConduct — Rule Follower or Breaker
45More Metaprograms Response — Match or Mismatch Scope — Global or SpecificCognitive Style — Thinking or FeelingConfirmation — VAK and Times
46Exercise: Eliciting Metaprograms Metaprograms are revealed byNonverbal messagesLanguageQuestion sWhat do you mean?How do you know?What’s important to you about that?
47Changing Behavior Patterns and Pattern Interrupts Anchors and AnchoringStimulus-response conditioningVisual, auditory, and kinesthetic anchorsAdvanced Language PatternsThe MetamodelThe Milton Model
49The Structure of Subjective Experience Sorting for TimePast, present, and futureTimelinesSorting for Like and DislikeCreating and Changing Meaning
50Modalities and Submodalities Visual SubmodalitiesLocation, size, distance, brightness, point of viewColor or black & white, moving or stillAuditory SubmodalitiesLocation, tone, rate, pitch, inflection, rhythmLanguage, voice (your voice, the voice of a parent)Kinesthetic SubmodalitiesLocation, strength, duration, movementQuality (warm, cold, “tingly,” etc.)
51Exercise: Changing Submodalities Select something, someone, or an activity you want to like better.Elicit submodalities forThings you like.Things you dislike.Change the submodalities with which you represent the thing, person, or activity.
52Belief Systems Cultural Parental Group Individual Global (Identity) Cause-effectIf X, then YIf I study, then I will...RulesCan/can’tMust/must notShould/should not
53Values A Type of Belief Hierarchical Either Positive or Negative Something desiredSomething to avoidCongruent or Incongruent
54Core Questions Remain Out of Conscious Awareness Focus Attention Influence Interpretation of EventsInfluence Psychological StateInfluence the Range of Possibilities
55Exercise: Belief and Disbelief Elicit the submodalities of something you believe absolutely.Elicit the submodalities of something you doubt.Elicit the submodalities of something you disbelieve.Select a limiting belief and change its submodalities.
56Frames and Reframes The Filters That Determine Meaning Influence State and BehaviorCreating and Changing FramesAnchoringReframing ContextReframing Content
57Reframing Context Key Questions Common Context Reframes Where would the characteristic or behavior be useful?When would the characteristic or behavior be useful?What would have to be true for this to be useful?Common Context ReframesRudolph’s red noseOilProcrastination
58Reframing Content Key Questions Common Content Reframes What else could this mean (or be)?What am I missing here?How can he or she believe that?How could this mean the opposite of what I thought?Common Content ReframesThe ugly ducklingPlastic or sawdustFailure
59The Metamodel Used to Understand Another’s Mental Maps Used to Recover Lost InformationUsed to Help Correct DistortionsUniversal Metamodel QuestionsWhat, who, or how specifically?What do you mean?How do you know?What would happen if you did (or didn’t)?
60Metamodel “Violations” Unspecified NounsAbstract nouns (a student, teachers)Nominalizations (freedom, justice)Unspecified or Missing PronounsSomeone you knowIt’s wrong to think that.
61Metamodel “Violations” Unspecified VerbsYou have to learn this.You will solve your problems.Unwarranted GeneralizationsYou never want to do anything.Politicians are crooks.
62Metamodel “Violations” Unwarranted ComparisonsBrand X gives you more.Sally is the best.Unwarranted RulesYou can’t do that on television.Clean your plate.No pain, no gain.
63The Milton Model Used to Change Another’s Mental Maps Used to Create New PossibilitiesUsed to Influence
64Milton Model Techniques Metamodel “Violations”Unspecified nouns, pronouns, and verbs.GeneralizationsComparisonsShifts in referential index
65More Milton Model Techniques PresuppositionsEmbedded QuestionsEmbedded CommandsNegative CommandsMetaphorsQuotesAmbiguities
66Basic Language Skills My automobile prefers to warm up slowly. The organization is in excellent shape. For example, the record profits last year.The company has decided to purchase new furniture.While busy working at the computer all day was no doubt the cause of her eye strain and stiff neck.
67More Basic Language Skills Not only will Alex need to justify his behavior to his boss, but also to the company president.The data is from “Service Is the Key”, by Eileen Johnson in the May issue of The Journal of Customer Relations.
68Language Skills for Case 1 As an employee of Con-U-Tel, it is my responsibility to set up our companies annual convention.I am writing this letter to inquire about your hotel’s accommodations.How many people can your hotel accommodate at one time?
69More Language Skills for Case 1 Does your hotel have banquet facilities?How many conference rooms does your hotel have with audio/visual equipment?I must have your answer by July 10th so that I can make a decision.Thank you in advance for sending this and other helpful information.
70Block Format and Mixed Punctuation Date goes on left margin5 January 2004January 5, 2004NOT: 1/5/2004 orInside address includes the following:Name of the individual with courtesy titleProfessional title and/or office or departmentOrganization plus “mail stop” informationCity, state, and ZIP code information
71Block Format and Mixed Punctuation—Part 2 SalutationDear Ms. Goldman:Dear Director:Ladies and Gentlemen:The signature block includes the following:An appropriate complimentary close (Sincerely, Cordially, Best Wishes)The signature of the person who wrote the letterThe typed/printed name of the writer
72Message Structure for Case 1 Ask the most important question.What is the make-or-break question?Why are convention facilities more important than guest rooms?Why is it important to include the dates in the opening question?Explain your needs.What does she need to know to help you?What does she not need to know?What is required for transition to the list of secondary questions?
73More Structure for Case 1 Ask your secondary questions.What is implied by the numbered list?How do you ensure that the information you receive will help you make a decision?Set and justify an end-date.Is it possible that she can help you in ways you haven’t asked about?Why do you need a time index to justify a specific end-date?