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Principles of Business Communication

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1 Principles of Business Communication
Overview Communication Skills Nonverbal communication Oral communication Written communication Interpersonal Applications Business Applications

2 Why Study Communication?
The Only Completely Portable Skill You will use it in every relationship You will need it regardless of your career path The “Information Age” The history of civilization is the history of information Language and written documents facilitate the transfer of information and knowledge through time and space

3 Why Study Communication?
Your Quality of Life Depends Primarily on Your Communication Skills You Cannot Be Too Good at Communication People Overestimate Their Own Communication Skills

4 We Want Others to Change

5 What Is Communication? Transfer of Meaning—No
Influence of Mental Maps—Yes Redundant Visual Auditory Kinesthestic Energetic

6 What Is Communication? Conscious and Intentional Nonverbal Verbal
Unconscious and Unintentional

7 Unconscious Processing
Conscious Processing = 7±2/Second Unconscious Processing = 200,000,000/Sec. Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Habits Physical Mental

8 Habits Learned Behavior Established Over Time Practice Self-talk

9 Learning Unconscious Incompetence Conscious Incompetence
Conscious Competence Unconscious Competence Mastery

10 External Reality The Map is Not the Territory Models of the World
We delete information We distort information We generalize We assign meaning Models of the World

11 Sensory Data The Building Blocks of Subjective Experience
What we see What we hear What we touch, taste, and smell The Four-tuple Meanings and Memories

12 Filtering Experience Primary Mediation Secondary Mediation
Genetic predisposition Conditioning Personal profiles of behavioral type Beliefs, values, core questions, and core metaphors Physical and mental state

13 Perception Can Be Tricky

14 The Communication Process
Message Decision- Making Decision- Making Filters Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State Filters Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State Sensory Data Meaning Meaning Sensory Data Encoding Encoding Sender Receiver Channel The Bowman Communication Model,

15 Metaphor: The Language of Perception
Metaphors and Similes My love is a flower. My love is like a flower. Core Metaphors Argument is war Business is war Business is a sport or a game Business is a building

16 Core Metaphors Metaphors, Similes, and Analogies Perceptual Filters
Common Operational Metaphors Time is… Learning is… Men/Women are… Success is... Life is…

17 Experience, Language, and Meaning
Mental Maps Sensory Data Experience

18 Symbol Systems 1+1=2 Language Mathematics Money Words and sentences
Meaning and labels Mathematics Money 1+1=2

19 History of Communication
Nonverbal: 150,000 years Oral: ,000 years Written: ,000 years Early writing: BC Egyptian hieroglyphics: BC Phoenician alphabet: to 2000 BC Book printing in China: 600 BC Book printing in Europe: AD

20 Communicating Meaning
Physiology and Appearance: 55 percent Paralanguage: percent Language: percent

21 Sensory Data and Mental Maps
Bridge Between Internal and External Internal and External Processing Internal Processing Posture and breathing Language and paralanguage Eye accessing cues

22 Sensory Modalities Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Touch Taste Smell
Emotional responses (feelings)

23 Preferred Sensory Modalities
People Use All Their Available Senses Some Prefer Visual Some Prefer Auditory Some Prefer the Kinesthetic Cluster Senses of touch, taste, and smell Associated emotional responses Some Prefer “Digital” Processing

24 Visuals Vocabulary Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage
I see what you mean. It looks good to me. Let’s stay focused on the problem. She has a bright future. He’s always in a fog. Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage

25 Auditories Vocabulary Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage
I hear what you are saying. It sounds good to me. Does the name Pavlov ring a bell? That’s music to my ears. He’s always blowing his own horn. Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage

26 Kinesthetics (Kinos) Vocabulary Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage
I can grasp the concept, and it feels right to me. It smells fishy to me. It left me with a bad taste in my mouth. She’s still rough around the edges. He’s a smooth operator. Physiology and Appearance Paralanguage

27 Eye Accessing Cues Vr Vc Ac Ar Ai K

28 Exercise: Observing Eye Movements
Ask questions that require internal processing. Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Taste or smell Touch Emotions

29 Exercise: Flexibility
Determine your preferred system. What are you doing when you “think”? Speak for two minutes using predicates from one sensory modality, then do the the same for each of the other two. Work in groups and take turns speaking using sense-based predicates in a systematic way.

30 Rapport Finding Commonalities Matching and Mirroring
Values Vocabulary and paralanguage Physiology and appearance Matching and Mirroring Cross-over Matching People who are like each other, like each other.

31 Developing Rapport Nonverbal (what you see and do)
Physiology Appearance Congruence Verbal (what you hear and say) Sense-based predicates Values, beliefs, and criteria Voice tone and rate of speech

32 Reading Nonverbal Messages
Sensory Acuity Agree and Disagree Posture and Movement Associated or dissociated Bodily response

33 Exercises: Rapport Matching and Mirroring Observing others Practicing
Calibration Like/dislike Yes/no


35 Congruence Physiology Nonverbal and Verbal Messages “Parts” Groups
Left/right body Left/right brain Nonverbal and Verbal Messages “Parts” Groups

36 Strategies The Structure of Subjective Experience Learned Behavior
Four-tuples Syntax Learned Behavior TOTE (Test, Operate, Test, Exit) Habits Skills

37 Common Strategies Accommodate Spelling Making Decisions Communicating
Auditory (spell “phonics” phonetically) Visual Making Decisions Communicating Listening and speaking Writing Accommodate

38 Decision-making Strategies
Purchasing An inexpensive product Dinner in a nice restaurant An expensive product or service Relationships Career Choices

39 Communication Strategy, 1 & 2
Pace Match (nonverbally and verbally) Meet expectations Lead Set direction Maintain interest Maintain rapport

40 Communication Strategy, 3 & 4
Blend Outcomes Understand objectives and desires Create win-win solutions Motivate Clarify who does what next Future-pace possibilities Presuppose positive results

41 Exercise: Eliciting Strategies
Ordering a Meal in a Restaurant Learning Something New Teaching Something for the First Time

42 Personal Profiles Achiever Communicator Specialist Perfectionist A C P

43 Profile Characteristics
Achiever Likes to set goals, challenge the environment and win. Sees life as a competition. Communicator Likes to achieve results by working with and through people. Finds more enjoyment in the process than in the results. Specialist Likes to plan work and relationships. Finds enjoyment in knowing what to expect. Perfectionist Enjoys jobs requiring attention to detail. Complies with authority and tries to provide the “right” answer.

44 Metaprograms Action — Initiate or Respond
Direction — Toward or Away From Source — Internal or External Conduct — Rule Follower or Breaker

45 More Metaprograms Response — Match or Mismatch
Scope — Global or Specific Cognitive Style — Thinking or Feeling Confirmation — VAK and Times

46 Exercise: Eliciting Metaprograms
Metaprograms are revealed by Nonverbal messages Language Question s What do you mean? How do you know? What’s important to you about that?

47 Changing Behavior Patterns and Pattern Interrupts
Anchors and Anchoring Stimulus-response conditioning Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic anchors Advanced Language Patterns The Metamodel The Milton Model

48 Exercise: Anchoring Setting Anchors Kinesthetic Visual Auditory
Stacking Anchors Collapsing Anchors Using Sliding Anchors

49 The Structure of Subjective Experience
Sorting for Time Past, present, and future Timelines Sorting for Like and Dislike Creating and Changing Meaning

50 Modalities and Submodalities
Visual Submodalities Location, size, distance, brightness, point of view Color or black & white, moving or still Auditory Submodalities Location, tone, rate, pitch, inflection, rhythm Language, voice (your voice, the voice of a parent) Kinesthetic Submodalities Location, strength, duration, movement Quality (warm, cold, “tingly,” etc.)

51 Exercise: Changing Submodalities
Select something, someone, or an activity you want to like better. Elicit submodalities for Things you like. Things you dislike. Change the submodalities with which you represent the thing, person, or activity.

52 Belief Systems Cultural Parental Group Individual Global (Identity)
Cause-effect If X, then Y If I study, then I will... Rules Can/can’t Must/must not Should/should not

53 Values A Type of Belief Hierarchical Either Positive or Negative
Something desired Something to avoid Congruent or Incongruent

54 Core Questions Remain Out of Conscious Awareness Focus Attention
Influence Interpretation of Events Influence Psychological State Influence the Range of Possibilities

55 Exercise: Belief and Disbelief
Elicit the submodalities of something you believe absolutely. Elicit the submodalities of something you doubt. Elicit the submodalities of something you disbelieve. Select a limiting belief and change its submodalities.

56 Frames and Reframes The Filters That Determine Meaning
Influence State and Behavior Creating and Changing Frames Anchoring Reframing Context Reframing Content

57 Reframing Context Key Questions Common Context Reframes
Where would the characteristic or behavior be useful? When would the characteristic or behavior be useful? What would have to be true for this to be useful? Common Context Reframes Rudolph’s red nose Oil Procrastination

58 Reframing Content Key Questions Common Content Reframes
What else could this mean (or be)? What am I missing here? How can he or she believe that? How could this mean the opposite of what I thought? Common Content Reframes The ugly duckling Plastic or sawdust Failure

59 The Metamodel Used to Understand Another’s Mental Maps
Used to Recover Lost Information Used to Help Correct Distortions Universal Metamodel Questions What, who, or how specifically? What do you mean? How do you know? What would happen if you did (or didn’t)?

60 Metamodel “Violations”
Unspecified Nouns Abstract nouns (a student, teachers) Nominalizations (freedom, justice) Unspecified or Missing Pronouns Someone you know It’s wrong to think that.

61 Metamodel “Violations”
Unspecified Verbs You have to learn this. You will solve your problems. Unwarranted Generalizations You never want to do anything. Politicians are crooks.

62 Metamodel “Violations”
Unwarranted Comparisons Brand X gives you more. Sally is the best. Unwarranted Rules You can’t do that on television. Clean your plate. No pain, no gain.

63 The Milton Model Used to Change Another’s Mental Maps
Used to Create New Possibilities Used to Influence

64 Milton Model Techniques
Metamodel “Violations” Unspecified nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Generalizations Comparisons Shifts in referential index

65 More Milton Model Techniques
Presuppositions Embedded Questions Embedded Commands Negative Commands Metaphors Quotes Ambiguities

66 Basic Language Skills My automobile prefers to warm up slowly.
The organization is in excellent shape. For example, the record profits last year. The company has decided to purchase new furniture. While busy working at the computer all day was no doubt the cause of her eye strain and stiff neck.

67 More Basic Language Skills
Not only will Alex need to justify his behavior to his boss, but also to the company president. The data is from “Service Is the Key”, by Eileen Johnson in the May issue of The Journal of Customer Relations.

68 Language Skills for Case 1
As an employee of Con-U-Tel, it is my responsibility to set up our companies annual convention. I am writing this letter to inquire about your hotel’s accommodations. How many people can your hotel accommodate at one time?

69 More Language Skills for Case 1
Does your hotel have banquet facilities? How many conference rooms does your hotel have with audio/visual equipment? I must have your answer by July 10th so that I can make a decision. Thank you in advance for sending this and other helpful information.

70 Block Format and Mixed Punctuation
Date goes on left margin 5 January 2004 January 5, 2004 NOT: 1/5/2004 or Inside address includes the following: Name of the individual with courtesy title Professional title and/or office or department Organization plus “mail stop” information City, state, and ZIP code information

71 Block Format and Mixed Punctuation—Part 2
Salutation Dear Ms. Goldman: Dear Director: Ladies and Gentlemen: The signature block includes the following: An appropriate complimentary close (Sincerely, Cordially, Best Wishes) The signature of the person who wrote the letter The typed/printed name of the writer

72 Message Structure for Case 1
Ask the most important question. What is the make-or-break question? Why are convention facilities more important than guest rooms? Why is it important to include the dates in the opening question? Explain your needs. What does she need to know to help you? What does she not need to know? What is required for transition to the list of secondary questions?

73 More Structure for Case 1
Ask your secondary questions. What is implied by the numbered list? How do you ensure that the information you receive will help you make a decision? Set and justify an end-date. Is it possible that she can help you in ways you haven’t asked about? Why do you need a time index to justify a specific end-date?

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