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Presentation on theme: "COMMUNICATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is Communication? It is the transfer of information from the sender to the receiver through a medium of communication ‘It is the imparting, conveying, or exchange of information, ideas or opinions by the use of speech, writing or graphics.’

3 The Communication Cycle:

4 The communication cycle - explained
SENDER: The person that sends the message ENCODING: The process by which the sender puts the information into a form suitable for sending. MESSAGE: The information which is to be conveyed. MEDIUM: The means by which the message is sent: written, oral (spoken) and visual methods: RECEIVER: The person to which the message is addressed ( the object to which the message is directed) DECODING: Process by which recipient interprets the meaning of the message. FEEDBACK: Indirect reaction of the recipient. NOISE: Anything obstructing the message from being send and understood.

5 Barriers to communication
Distortion: using the wrong words, using jargon or technical words that are not understood, using a foreign language or an accent that is not understood, using words or pictures that have more than one meaning. Inadequate communication skills Lack of listening ability Attitudes Incorrect information Other barriers: perceptual barrier, information overload, language, contradictory non-verbal messages Noise ( barriers caused by outside influences e.g. factory noise, traffic noise, noise from people around you, other telephone lines ringing).

6 Noise Noise, such as distractions or the interference that
occurs as the communication is being encoded, transmitted and decoded, can obstruct the transmission of the message. There are many different types of noise that can render the message inaccurate, unclear or even mean that it is not received at all.

7 TYPES OF NOISE Technical noise: poor telephone connection, internet connection problems, problem with computers, fax, etc. Physical noise: people talking, , traffic, noisy machinery could render the speaker’s voice inaudible during a presentation. Social noise: it is caused when people are prejudiced against others because they are of a different age, gender, culture, race, colour, or social class. Psychological noise: A person’s emotional state or attitude could interfere with message transmission.

8 Other barriers: Perceptual bias: it can occur when the recipient of a message makes assumptions and selects what they want to hear. This can result in the wrong message being received. Information overload: it can occur if the recipient of the message receives too much information or information that is too technical. The result is that the key messages are not conveyed or understood. Contradictory non-verbal messages: it can occur if the person encoding a message says one thing but their body language says something else. For example, if a person wears casual clothes and a baseball cap to a job interview in a formal business environment and says that they think they would fit into the organisation, they are conveying mixed messages to the interviewer.

9 Language: it can act as a barrier if two people speak different languages and cannot understand each other.

10 Avoiding barriers to communication
Communication barriers cause mistakes and can damage the business relationship with external customers. With internal customers, communication barriers can lead to conflict and irritation neither of which are a good recipe for internal marketing and customer care. To avoid possible communication barriers, careful thought needs to be put in before encoding messages so that the full message is conveyed. Gaps in messages are usually caused by making assumptions about how people will ‘decode’ the message.

11 Avoid jargon or technical words that may not be understood and try to avoid ambiguity.
Ensure that you understand your target audience as this is the key to avoiding barriers to communication. The accuracy and precision of your message is important if it is to be decoded correctly. An understanding of your target audience’s needs should mean that you are able to have the same ‘mental image’ about a product or service that your customers have. For internal communication with staff, you could provide training to eradicate unnecessary social and psychological noise that can be created when people make assumptions about customers or allow themselves to react inappropriately when customers make complaints. When communicating with customers it is essential not to create information overload and to be aware that only part of the message may be heard. You may have to repeat a message many times before it is heard fully. It is also important to establish credibility so that customers feel you and your message is trustworthy and internal customers believe in what you say. By taking some time to consider how a communication might be received you are more likely to shape a message that will not be misinterpreted or misunderstood. In other words, by carefully shaping your message and considering the effect it might create, it is more likely that the communication will be successful.

12 Defining the purpose Knowing when and how to communicate Understanding the receiver Personal communication skills

13 3. Control: Successful communicators are able to control their
message to a great extent and also to generate (mostly) the required response, if appropriate. 4. Congeniality: the ability to be pleasant and friendly, in written, verbal or nonverbal communication, even if the message is serious and possibly very bad news.

14 Principles of effective communication
Purpose Identify the objective or intention of the communication 1. Planning: Planning the business message: The planning framework: Audience Identify who you want to communicate with, their position/status, where they are located. This will assist you in considering what their perception and understanding of the message might be. Structure Identify the content of the message and the order in which the material should appear. Style Identify the appropriate type of vocabulary, the degree of formality and the tone of voice.

15 Acquiring and organising information
Structuring communications The importance of clarity: the need to convey ideas precisely, the need to establish suitable and positive relationships, the need to create favourable impressions of yourself and of the organisation you represent.

16 The 7’C’s in effective communication:
Clear Concise Correct Courteous Complete Consistent Convincing


























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