2 What is Communication?It is the transfer of information from the sender to the receiver through a medium of communication‘It is the imparting, conveying, or exchange of information, ideas or opinions by the use of speech, writing or graphics.’
3 The Communication Cycle: SENDERENCODINGMESSAGEMEDIUMRECEIVERNOISE(BARRIERS)DECODINGFEEDBACK
4 The communication cycle - explained SENDER: The person that sends the messageENCODING: The process by which the sender puts the information into a form suitable for sending.MESSAGE: The information which is to be conveyed.MEDIUM: The means by which the message is sent: written, oral (spoken) and visual methods:RECEIVER: The person to which the message is addressed ( the object to which the message is directed)DECODING: Process by which recipient interprets the meaning of the message.FEEDBACK: Indirect reaction of the recipient.NOISE: Anything obstructing the message from being send and understood.
5 Barriers to communication Distortion: using the wrong words, using jargon or technical words that are not understood, using a foreign language or an accent that is not understood, using words or pictures that have more than one meaning.Inadequate communication skillsLack of listening abilityAttitudesIncorrect informationOther barriers: perceptual barrier, information overload, language, contradictory non-verbal messagesNoise ( barriers caused by outside influences e.g. factory noise, traffic noise, noise from people around you, other telephone lines ringing).
6 Noise Noise, such as distractions or the interference that occurs as the communication is being encoded,transmitted and decoded, can obstruct the transmissionof the message. There are many different types ofnoise that can render the message inaccurate, unclearor even mean that it is not received at all.
7 TYPES OF NOISETechnical noise: poor telephone connection, internet connection problems, problem with computers, fax, etc.Physical noise: people talking, , traffic, noisy machinery could render the speaker’s voice inaudible during a presentation.Social noise: it is caused when people are prejudiced against others because they are of a different age, gender, culture, race, colour, or social class.Psychological noise: A person’s emotional state or attitude could interfere with message transmission.
8 Other barriers:Perceptual bias: it can occur when the recipient of a message makes assumptions and selects what they want to hear. This can result in the wrong message being received.Information overload: it can occur if the recipient of the message receives too much information or information that is too technical. The result is that the key messages are not conveyed or understood.Contradictory non-verbal messages: it can occur if the person encoding a message says one thing but their body language says something else. For example, if a person wears casual clothes and a baseball cap to a job interview in a formal business environment and says that they think they would fit into the organisation, they are conveying mixed messages to the interviewer.
9 Language: it can act as a barrier if two people speak different languages and cannot understand each other.
10 Avoiding barriers to communication Communication barriers cause mistakes and can damage the business relationship with external customers. With internal customers, communication barriers can lead to conflict and irritation neither of which are a good recipe for internal marketing and customer care.To avoid possible communication barriers, careful thought needs to be put in before encoding messages so that the full message is conveyed. Gaps in messages are usually caused by making assumptions about how people will ‘decode’ the message.
11 Avoid jargon or technical words that may not be understood and try to avoid ambiguity. Ensure that you understand your target audience as this is the key to avoiding barriers to communication. The accuracy and precision of your message is important if it is to be decoded correctly. An understanding of your target audience’s needs should mean that you are able to have the same ‘mental image’ about a product or service that your customers have.For internal communication with staff, you could provide training to eradicate unnecessary social and psychological noise that can be created when people make assumptions about customers or allow themselves to react inappropriately when customers make complaints.When communicating with customers it is essential not to create information overload and to be aware that only part of the message may be heard. You may have to repeat a message many times before it is heard fully.It is also important to establish credibility so that customers feel you and your message is trustworthy and internal customers believe in what you say.By taking some time to consider how a communication might be received you are more likely to shape a message that will not be misinterpreted or misunderstood. In other words, by carefully shaping your message and considering the effect it might create, it is more likely that the communication will be successful.
12 Defining the purposeKnowing when and how to communicateUnderstanding the receiverPersonal communication skills
13 3. Control: Successful communicators are able to control their message to a great extent and also to generate (mostly) the requiredresponse, if appropriate.4. Congeniality: the ability to be pleasant and friendly, in written,verbal or nonverbal communication, even if the message is seriousand possibly very bad news.
14 Principles of effective communication PurposeIdentify the objective or intention of the communication1. Planning:Planning the businessmessage:The planning framework:AudienceIdentify who you want to communicate with, their position/status, where they are located. This will assist you in considering what their perception and understanding of the message might be.StructureIdentify the content of the message and the order in which the material should appear.StyleIdentify the appropriate type of vocabulary, the degree of formality and the tone of voice.
15 Acquiring and organising information Structuring communicationsThe importance of clarity: the need to convey ideas precisely, the need to establish suitable and positive relationships, the need to create favourable impressions of yourself and of the organisation you represent.
16 The 7’C’s in effective communication: ClearConciseCorrectCourteousCompleteConsistentConvincing