Presentation on theme: "Glorious Revolution. When did the Glorious Revolution take place? 1688 Who was the King of England at the time of the Glorious Revolution? King James."— Presentation transcript:
When did the Glorious Revolution take place? 1688 Who was the King of England at the time of the Glorious Revolution? King James II What religion was King James II? Roman Catholic
Glorious Revolution Why was King James' religion a problem for the members of Parliament and the people of England? They were afraid that he would want to make Catholicism the official religion. Before the Glorious Revolution, who did Parliament and the people of England hope would become the next monarch of England? Why? They hoped that James II's daughter, Mary would become queen because she was a Protestant. How was this hope dashed? James II's wife gave birth to a son who became heir to the English throne.
Glorious Revolution What did Parliament do after the birth of James's son? Withdrew their support from James II, offered the throne to James's daughter, Mary, and her husband, William. What did James II do when William of Orange invaded England? Fled to France.
Glorious Revolution What is meant by the term, "bloodless revolution" and how did it apply to the Glorious Revolution? A bloodless revolution is a transfer of power between rulers/governments without fighting or deaths. The Glorious Revolution saw the transfer of power from James II to William and Mary without any bloodshed.
Glorious Revolution How did the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and its aftermath ensure that the English monarchy would thereafter be limited in power? Parliament's support was now essential for the rule of any monarch. Parliament had the power to remove or crown monarchs. The monarch was now subject to rule of law.
Thomas Hobbes Outline his work in “Leviathan” (1651) People were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish Social Contract is an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society Government was an absolute monarchy, which could impose order and compel obedience
John Locke Wrote Two Treaties of Government (1690) Believe Natural Rights or rights that belong to all humans from birth Right to Life, Liberty, and Property
Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) Philosopher who battled inequality, injustice, and superstition Detested slave trade and deplored religious prejudice
Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755) Wrote “The Spirit of the Laws” (1748) in which he discussed governments throughout history He believed in the three branches of government (legislative, judicial, and executive), he believed in checks and balances
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Wrote “The Social Contract” (1762) Felt society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior He believed some controls were necessary, but they should be minimum Only governments that had been freely elected should impose these controls. Woven through his work is a hatred of all forms of political and economic oppression
Denis Diderot Help spread the enlightenment ideas Produce an encyclopedia French government and church try to ban it Produced 4,000 copies between 1751 and 1789
Mary Wollstonecraft Published “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” Equal education for girls and boys
Physiocrats French thinkers who focused on economic reforms Rejected mercantilism which required government regulation of the economy to achieve a favorable balance of trade. Urged Laissez Faire- allowing business to operate to little or no government interference Supported free trades and opposed tariffs
Adam Smith Scottish economist Wealth of Nations (1776) Urged the free market should be allowed to regulate business activities Supported Laissez-Faire; however, he felt that government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works Ideas help shape productive economies in 1800s and 1900s.
Enlightenment Ideas Spread
Challenge Society Censorship- Restricting access to ideas and information Salons- informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas Montesquieu and Voltaire sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction
Arts and Literature Reflect New Ideas Went from baroque, which was huge, colorful, full of excitement, glorified historic battles or the lives of saints to Rococo style Rococo Style moved away from religion and was lighter, elegant, and charming Inspired music and literature
Enlightened Despots Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Frederick II (Frederick the Great) King of Prussia 1740-1786 Saw himself as the “first servant of the state” with the duty to work with the common good Reduce torture and allow free press Religious tolerance
Catherine II (Catherine the Great) Became Empress of Russia in 1762 Abolish Torture Religious Tolerance
Joseph II Ruled Austria in the 18 th Century Modernized Austria’s Government Supported religious equality for Protestants and Jews in his Catholic Empire Allow Free Press Attempted to bring Catholic Church under royal control