2Glorious Revolution When did the Glorious Revolution take place? 1688 Who was the King of England at the time of the Glorious Revolution?King James IIWhat religion was King James II?Roman Catholic
3Glorious RevolutionWhy was King James' religion a problem for the members of Parliament and the people of England?They were afraid that he would want to make Catholicism the official religion.Before the Glorious Revolution, who did Parliament and the people of England hope would become the next monarch of England? Why?They hoped that James II's daughter, Mary would become queen because she was a Protestant.How was this hope dashed?James II's wife gave birth to a son who became heir to the English throne.
4Glorious RevolutionWhat did Parliament do after the birth of James's son?Withdrew their support from James II, offered the throne to James's daughter, Mary, and her husband, William.What did James II do when William of Orange invaded England?Fled to France.
5Glorious RevolutionWhat is meant by the term, "bloodless revolution" and how did it apply to the Glorious Revolution?A bloodless revolution is a transfer of power between rulers/governments without fighting or deaths. The Glorious Revolution saw the transfer of power from James II to William and Mary without any bloodshed.
6Glorious RevolutionHow did the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and its aftermath ensure that the English monarchy would thereafter be limited in power?Parliament's support was now essential for the rule of any monarch. Parliament had the power to remove or crown monarchs. The monarch was now subject to rule of law.
7Thomas Hobbes Outline his work in “Leviathan” (1651) People were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfishSocial Contract is an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized societyGovernment was an absolute monarchy, which could impose order and compel obedience
8John Locke Wrote Two Treaties of Government (1690) Believe Natural Rights or rights that belong to all humans from birthRight to Life, Liberty, and Property
9Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) Philosopher who battled inequality, injustice, and superstitionDetested slave trade and deplored religious prejudice
10Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755) Wrote “The Spirit of the Laws” (1748) in which he discussed governments throughout historyHe believed in the three branches of government (legislative, judicial, and executive), he believed in checks and balances
11Jean-Jacques Rousseau Wrote “The Social Contract” (1762)Felt society placed too many limitations on people’s behaviorHe believed some controls were necessary, but they should be minimumOnly governments that had been freely elected should impose these controls.Woven through his work is a hatred of all forms of political and economic oppression
12Denis Diderot Help spread the enlightenment ideas Produce an encyclopediaFrench government and church try to ban itProduced 4,000 copies between 1751 and 1789
13Mary Wollstonecraft Published “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” Equal education for girls and boys
14Physiocrats French thinkers who focused on economic reforms Rejected mercantilism which required government regulation of the economy to achieve a favorable balance of trade.Urged Laissez Faire- allowing business to operate to little or no government interferenceSupported free trades and opposed tariffs
15Adam Smith Scottish economist Wealth of Nations (1776) Urged the free market should be allowed to regulate business activitiesSupported Laissez-Faire; however, he felt that government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public worksIdeas help shape productive economies in 1800s and 1900s.
17Challenge SocietyCensorship- Restricting access to ideas and informationSalons- informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideasMontesquieu and Voltaire sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction
18Arts and Literature Reflect New Ideas Went from baroque, which was huge, colorful, full of excitement, glorified historic battles or the lives of saints to Rococo styleRococo Style moved away from religion and was lighter, elegant, and charmingInspired music and literature
19Enlightened DespotsAbsolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
20Frederick II (Frederick the Great) King of PrussiaSaw himself as the “first servant of the state” with the duty to work with the common goodReduce torture and allow free pressReligious tolerance
21Catherine II (Catherine the Great) Became Empress of Russia in 1762Abolish TortureReligious Tolerance
22Joseph II Ruled Austria in the 18th Century Modernized Austria’s GovernmentSupported religious equality for Protestants and Jews in his Catholic EmpireAllow Free PressAttempted to bring Catholic Church under royal control