Some cells divide every few hours (skin and digestive tract cells) Some cells never divide (muscle and nerve cells)
How do cells know when to divide? Internal Vs. External Regulators Internal Regulators- responds to events occurring inside the cell (have chromosomes duplicated yet?) External Regulators- responds to events outside the cell; should a division increase or decrease?
Apoptosis Cells can die two ways- on accident, or on purpose (“apoptosis”) Important during tissue development
Cancer When the cell cycle is unregulated Tumor: a mass of cells that divide uncontrollably
Malignant tumor: when tumor cells enter and destroy surrounding healthy tissue Benign tumor: tumor cells do not destroy surrounding healthy cells
Cancer in the US 2 nd leading cause of death in adults, second to heart disease 2 nd leading cause of death in children, second to accidents Let’s look at some cancer statistics. Count off in 6’s
What are the most common types of Cancers? Men Lung Cancer Colorectal Cancer Prostate Cancer Women Lung Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Children and Young Adults Leukemia Brain and Central Nervous system tumors Melanoma Bone Cancer
Treatments Surgery Radiation (target and destroy cancer cells) Chemotherapy (can interfere with other quickly dividing cells)
Don’t use tobacco in any form Maintain a healthy lifestyle Use sunscreen (UVA/UVB broad spectrum) when outdoors Understand your risks and get screened
Differentiation “The process in which a cell becomes specialized” Occurs during the develop of the organism (the cells of an embryo have the ability to become every different cell in the body)
Stem Cells Embryonic Found in embryos Can become almost all the cells in the body Adult Found in adults Used to renew and replace cells Can become many different cells in the body (much more limited than embryonic)
Stem Cell Research Stem cells can be collected from amniotic fluid, embryos, and adults Helps with understanding cell differentiation Test new drugs Grow tissues and organs to replace old and failing ones to treat spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis
Embryonic Stem Cells Collected from in vitro fertilized embryos donated for research Can easily be grown in laboratory cultures
Adult Stem Cells Collected from adult tissues Very few in the body, and collecting them lessens their ability to divide More difficult to grow in labs Used for bone marrow transplants
Controversy There are controversies regarding the ethics of using a human embryo to acquire stem cells Retrieving the stem cells destroys the embryo When does life begin?
What are some arguments? Pro Stem Cell ResearchAgainst Stem Cell Research