Presentation on theme: "CELL DIVISION AND CANCER Unit 7 - Mitosis. Mitosis All cells in your body divide In children and teens, cells divide to assist in growth In adults,"— Presentation transcript:
Mitosis All cells in your body divide In children and teens, cells divide to assist in growth In adults, cells divide to replace old cells Your cells are really good at knowing when they should and shouldn’t divide
Cell Regulators Inside and on the outside of your cells, you have “regulators” that control cell division. These regulators act as body guards for the cell, making sure that everything goes according to plan
Internal Cell Regulators These are proteins that respond to events inside the cell. Example Make sure mitosis doesn’t happen until chromosomes are replicated
External Cell Regulators Proteins that respond to events that happen outside the cell Examples Speed up or slow down cell division Proteins on neighbor cells can tell the cells around them to stop growing or to slow down so that they don’t impede other tissue or cells.
What is Cancer? Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s own cells lose their ability to regulate cell growth. Cancerous cells do not respond to the signals from other cells that tell them to stop or slow down their growth. When the cells do not stop dividing, a tumor is formed.
Benign and Malignant Tumors Benign Tumors Non-cancerous tumors Cysts Keloids Malignant Tumors Cancerous tumors Here, bad cells (those that cannot stop dividing) break off into your blood or lymph systems and travel to other parts of the body. There, they infect the cells around them, causing mass division of cancer cells.
Fact According to the American Cancer Society, in 2012 there have already been 65, 750 new cases of cancer reported.
4 Basic Types of Cancer Carcinoma Cancer that begins in the skin or tissues that cover internal organs Example: melanoma which is a type of skin cancer.
4 Basic Types of Cancer Sarcoma Cancer that begins in the bones, cartilage, fat, muscles, blood vessels, or other connective/supportive tissue Example: osteosarcoma which is cancer in the bones
4 Basic Types of Cancer Leukemia Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Example – Acute Myeloid Leukemia is a cancer that begins in the white blood cells Normal WBC Leukemic WBC
4 Basic Types of Cancer Lymphoma/Myeloma Cancer that begins in cells associated with the immune system Example: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma is a cancer that starts in the lymphocytes (cells of your immune system).
Some Causes of Cancer Exposure to carcinogens Asbestos lung cancer Formaldehyde leukemia's, lymphomas, etc. Exposure to UV rays Tanning Can cause skin cancer Melanoma Basal cell carcinoma
Causes of Cancer Smoking cigarettes Contain many carcinogenic chemicals Can cause a variety of cancer Lung cancer (most common) Throat cancer Oral cancer Other tobacco products Chewing tobacco Oral cancer
Other Causes of Cancer Heredity Breast cancer Kidney Cancer Viruses HIV Kaposi Sarcoma HPV cervical cancer Hepatitis B liver cancer
How do we detect cancer? MRI Endoscopy X-ray Biopsy Ultra sound Liver cancers Ovarian cancers Mammogram Breast cancer For women 40 y/o and older
How can we treat cancer? Chemotherapy Drugs given to target rapidly growing cells Not only kills cancer cells but any rapidly growing cells like hair follicle cells Surgery Remove the tumor and surrounding tissue Radiation treatment Applying concentrated amount of energy to cancer cells to damage their DNA Often times a combination of treatments can be used
Vaccines Preventative To prevent the emergence of cancer in healthy people Examples HBV Hepatitis B which can cause liver cancer Gardasil Cervical cancer Therapeutic/Treatment Used to treat cancer