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Ch 10: Cell Division.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 10: Cell Division."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 10: Cell Division

2 Limits to Cell Growth DNA overload
creates an information crisis… Library analogy, everybody rushing to the library to checkout one of 5 copies of a book.

3 Limits to Cell Growth Exchanging nutrients & waste
rate of using food & producing wastes depends on cell volume

4 Increased surface area to volume ratio
difficult to get oxygen, food, and wastes out of the cell if the cell gets too large Exiting the CHS parking lot at 3:10 pm is hard because there are only 2 outlets (small surface area and a large volume of people trying to leave.)

5 Cell division -Cells of every organisms have a specific # of chromosomes: fruit flies = 8 humans = 46


7 Interphase The majority of time in the cell cycle
G1 – cell growth, synthesize proteins and organelles S – DNA replication (copies are made) – the longest step G2 – shortest – organelles and molecules needed for division are produced

8 Interphase The majority of time in the cell cycle

9 Mitosis Division of the nucleus (Whitefish  )

10 Prophase longest phase of mitosis (50-60%) chromosomes visible
nuclear membrane breaks apart spindle forms centrioles separate

11 Metaphase chromosomes line up
each chromosome connected to a spindle fiber

12 Anaphase sister chromatids separate

13 Telophase Begin to see cell membrane (cell plate) form between cells
Nuclear membrane forms

14 Cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm (2 daughter cells)

15 Mitosis animation-Hybrid



18 Abnormal Cell Growth

19 Abnormal Cell Growth

20 A Large Abdominal Tumor

21 Surgical Removal of Tumor

22 Surgical Removal of Tumor

23 Body without Tumor

24 Cancer Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S.
Lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancers are the most prevalent types

25 Cancer Cancer = occurs when some of the body’s cells lose the ability to control growth Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate growth and divide uncontrollably Cancer cells absorb nutrients needed by other cells, block nerve connections, and prevent organs from functioning.

26 Cancer Cont. Tumor = a mass of cancer cells
Benign tumors = noncancerous tumors that do not spread to other tissue Malignant tumor = cancerous tumor that invade and destroy surrounding tissue Metastasis = the spread of cancer cells

27 Causes of cancer Caused by defects in the genes that regulate cell growth and development Sources of gene defects include tobacco radiation exposure defective genes viral infection Many cancers have a defective p53 gene which halts the cell cycle until chromosomes have been replicated

28 Treatment of cancer Surgery Radiation
Chemotherapy – chemical compounds that kill cancer Targets rapidly dividing cells and also interferes with cell division in normal cells (side effects)

29 10.4 Cell Differentiation The human body contains hundreds of different cell types, and every one of them develops from the single cell that starts the process. How do the cells get to be so different from each other?

30 Differentiation During the development of an organism, cells differentiate into many types of cells.

31 Stem Cells Stem cells = the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop Totipotent cells= can develop into any type of cell in the body Pluripotent = can develop into most (but not all) of the body’s cell types Inner cells in the early embryo (a hollow ball called a blastocyst)

32 Embryonic Stem Cells Found in the inner cells mass of the early embryo. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent. (cells have the capacity to produce most cell types in the human body)

33 Adult Stem Cells Adult stem cells are multipotent. They can produce many types of differentiated cells Adult stem cells of a given organ or tissue typically produce only the types of cells that are unique to that tissue. Peyton Manning Stem Cells????? Skin Cell Spray

34 Stem Cell Research Repair or replace badly damaged cells and tissues.
heart attack stroke spinal cord injuries.

35 Stem Cells – the ethical concerns
Embryonic stem cells are harvested from early embryos Most methods destroy the embryo In the past, US limited funding for the embryonic cell lines used for research - NIH has136 embryonic stem lines in the US that are currently being used for research Research is being done to harvest embryonic stem cells without destroying the embryo turning adult stem cells into pluripotent cells Embryonic stem cells out of umbilical cord blood Cord Blood Banking News Clips Cord Blood Registry Video

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