Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Research Project by Anna Dong, Soojin Jeong, Reina Ooka -Stem Cells-"— Presentation transcript:
Biotechnology Research Project by Anna Dong, Soojin Jeong, Reina Ooka -Stem Cells-
What are stem cells? They are found in all multi-cellular organisms. Unspecialized that renew themselves for long periods through cell division. They can be induced to become cells with special functions. They are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods (replicate many times)
Where can it be found? They can become multiple specialized cell types that make up the skin, marrow, blood, lung and other tissues. Recently it was discovered that they can be found in the heart and brain as well.
Types of stem cells Embryonic Stem Cells: they are derived from embryos. Adult Stem Cells: an undifferentiated cell found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ, can renew itself, and can differentiate to yield the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ.
Embryonic Stem Cells embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro—in an in vitro fertilization clinic—and then donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors.
How are embryonic stem cells stimulated to differentiate? If cells are allowed to clump together to form embryonic bodies, they begin to differentiate spontaneously. They can form muscle cells, nerve cells, and many other cell types.
How can differentiation be used? If scientists can reliably direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific cell types, they may be able to use the resulting, differentiated cells to treat certain diseases at some point in the future. (For example, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, traumatic spinal cord injury, Purkinje cell degeneration, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, heart disease, and vision/hearing loss can be cured)
Adult Stem Cells The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Scientists in many laboratories are trying to find ways to grow adult stem cells in cell culture and manipulate them to generate specific cell types so they can be used to treat injury or disease. (Potential treatment examples include: replacing the dopamine-producing cells in the brains of Parkinson's patients, developing insulin- producing cells for type I Diabetes and repairing damaged heart muscle following a heart attack with cardiac muscle cells.)
Use of Adult Stem Cells Recently, stem cells were discovered in many more tissues than before Adult blood forming stem cells from bone marrow have been used in Transplants for 30 years. Certain kinds of adult stem cells seem to have the ability to differentiate into a number of different cell types, given the right conditions. If this differentiation of adult stem cells can be controlled in the laboratory. These cells may become the basis of therapies for many serious common diseases.
Start of Stem Cells Scientists discovered ways to obtain or derive stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 20 years ago. Studying biological features of Mouse stem cells for many years led to the discovery in 1998, which indicated ways to isolate stem cells from human embryos and to grow them in the laboratories.