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10.3 Regulating the Cell Cycle 10.4 Cell Differentiation

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Presentation on theme: "10.3 Regulating the Cell Cycle 10.4 Cell Differentiation"— Presentation transcript:

1 10.3 Regulating the Cell Cycle 10.4 Cell Differentiation
Lesson Overview 10.3 Regulating the Cell Cycle 10.4 Cell Differentiation

2 Guiding Questions: How is the cell cycle regulated?
How do cancer cells differ from other cells? What causes cancer & how can it be controlled? How do cells become specialized for different functions? What are stem cells?

3 But first….let’s review the basics of the cell cycle:
Genetic information in the form of DNA Cell cycle= process of cell division  The cell grows;  DNA is copied; The contents of the nucleus are divided;  Cytoplasm is divided; Two new cells exactly like the original cell!

4 Controls on Cell Division
How is the cell cycle regulated? The cell cycle is controlled by regulatory proteins both inside and outside the cell.

5 The controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off.
For example, when an injury such as a broken bone occurs, cells are stimulated to divide rapidly and start the healing process. The rate of cell division slows when the healing process nears completion.

6 Also, recall… You can grow too many cells!!!
one of the major characteristics of living things is the ability to GROW an adult doesn't have bigger cells, they have more cells You can grow too many cells!!!

7 An Interesting Fact About Cell Division:
Not all cells move through the cell cycle at the same rate Ex: most muscle cells & nerve cells do not divide at all once they have developed Ex: skin cells and cells lining our intestines complete the cell cycle every hours Ex: frog embryo cells take less than one hour!

8 The Discovery of Cyclins
Cyclins are a family of proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells. This graph shows how cyclin levels change throughout the cell cycle in fertilized clam eggs.

9 Regulatory Proteins Internal regulators are proteins that respond to events inside a cell. They allow the cell cycle to proceed only once certain processes have happened inside the cell. External regulators are proteins that respond to events outside the cell. They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle. Growth factors are external regulators that stimulate the growth and division of cells. They are important during embryonic development and wound healing.

10 Apoptosis Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death.
Apoptosis plays a role in development by shaping the structure of tissues and organs in plants and animals. For example, the foot of a mouse is shaped the way it is partly because the toes undergo apoptosis during tissue development.

11 A mistake (MUTATION) in the DNA (GENES) that codes for one or more of these control factors/enzymes could lead to a LOSS OF CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE.

12 Cancer: Uncontrolled Cell Growth
How do cancer cells differ from other cells? Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells. As a result, the cells divide uncontrollably. cancer cells

13 Cancer is a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control cell growth.
Cancer cells divide uncontrollably to form a mass of cells called a tumor.

14 A benign tumor is noncancerous
A benign tumor is noncancerous. It does not spread to surrounding healthy tissue. A malignant tumor is cancerous. It invades and destroys surrounding healthy tissue and can spread to other parts of the body. The spread of cancer cells is called metastasis. Cancer cells absorb nutrients needed by other cells, block nerve connections, and prevent organs from functioning.


16 What Causes Cancer? Cancers are caused by defects in genes that regulate cell growth and division. Some sources of gene defects are smoking tobacco, radiation exposure, defective genes, and viral infection. A damaged or defective p53 gene is common in cancer cells. It causes cells to lose the information needed to respond to growth signals.

17 Treatments for Cancer Some localized tumors can be removed by surgery.
Many tumors can be treated with targeted radiation. Chemotherapy is the use of compounds that kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. Old Mastectomy Vs. New Mastectomy

18 From One Cell to Many How do cells become specialized for different functions? During the development of an organism, cells differentiate into many types of cells.

19 All organisms start life as just one cell.
Most multicellular organisms pass through an early stage of development called an embryo, which gradually develops into an adult organism.

20 During development, an organism’s cells become more differentiated and specialized for particular functions. For example, a plant has specialized cells in its roots, stems, and leaves.

21 Defining Differentiation
The process by which cells become specialized is known as differentiation. During development, cells differentiate into many different types and become specialized to perform certain tasks. Differentiated cells carry out the jobs that multicellular organisms need to stay alive.

22 Mapping Differentiation
In some organisms, a cell’s role is determined at a specific point in development. In the worm C. elegans, daughter cells from each cell division follow a specific path toward a role as a particular kind of cell.

23 Differentiation in Mammals
Cell differentiation in mammals is controlled by a number of interacting factors in the embryo. Adult cells generally reach a point at which their differentiation is complete and they can no longer become other types of cells.

24 Stem Cells and Development
What are stem cells? The unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop are known as stem cells.

25 One of the most important questions in biology is how all of the specialized, differentiated cell types in the body are formed from just a single cell. Biologists say that such a cell is totipotent, literally able to do everything, to form all the tissues of the body. Only the fertilized egg and the cells produced by the first few cell divisions of embryonic development are truly totipotent.

26 Human Development After about four days of development, a human embryo forms into a blastocyst, a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside known as the inner cell mass. The cells of the inner cell mass are said to be pluripotent, which means that they are capable of developing into many, but not all, of the body's cell types.

27 Stem Cells Stem cells are unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop. There are two types of stem cells: embryonic and adult stem cells.

28 Embryonic Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells are found in the inner cells mass of the early embryo. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent. Researchers have grown stem cells isolated from human embryos in culture. Their experiments confirmed that embryonic stem cells have the capacity to produce most cell types in the human body.

29 Adult Stem Cells Adult organisms contain some types of stem cells.
Adult stem cells are multipotent. They can produce many types of differentiated cells. Adult stem cells of a given organ or tissue typically produce only the types of cells that are unique to that tissue.

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