Presentation on theme: "Regulation of Cell Growth"— Presentation transcript:
1 Regulation of Cell Growth 10.3Regulation of Cell Growth
2 @The controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off by contact.@ For example, when an injury such as a broken bone occurs, cells are stimulated to divide rapidly and start the healing process. The rate of cell division slows when the healing process nears completion.
3 The Discovery of Cyclins @Cyclins are a family of proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryoticThis graph shows how cyclin levels change throughout the cell cycle in fertilized clam eggs.
4 Apoptosis is programmed cell death. a normal feature of healthy organismscaused by a cell’s production of self-destructive enzymesoccurs in development of infantswebbed fingers
5 Cancer is a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control cell growth. Cancer cells divide uncontrollably to form a mass of cells called a tumor.
6 What Causes Cancer?Cancers are caused by defects in genes that regulate cell growth and division.Some sources of gene defects are smoking tobacco, radiation exposure, defective genes, and viral infection.@A damaged or defective p53 gene is common in cancerIt causes cells to lose the information needed to respond to growth signals.
7 A benign tumor is noncancerous A benign tumor is noncancerous. It does not spread to surrounding healthy tissue.A malignant tumor is cancerous. It invades and destroys surrounding healthy tissue and can spread to other parts of the body.The spread of cancer cells is called metastasis. Cancer cells absorb nutrients needed by other cells, block nerve connections, and prevent organs from functioning.
8 Treatments for Cancer Some localized tumors can be removed by surgery. Many tumors can be treated with targeted radiation.Chemotherapy is the use of compounds that kill or slow the growth of cancer cells.
10 All organisms start life as just one cell. Most multicellular organisms pass through an early stage of development called an embryo, which gradually develops into an adult organism.
11 Defining Differentiation The process by which cells become specialized is known as differentiation.During development, cells differentiate into many different types and become specialized to perform certain tasks.Differentiated cells carry out the jobs that multicellular organisms need to stay alive.
12 Stem CellsStem cells are unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop.There are two types of stem cells: embryonic and adult stem cells.
13 Embryonic Stem CellsEmbryonic stem cells are found in the inner cells mass of the early embryo.Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent.Researchers have grown stem cells isolated from human embryos in culture. Their experiments confirmed that embryonic stem cells have the capacity to produce most cell types in the human body.
14 Adult Stem Cells Adult organisms contain some types of stem cells. Adult stem cells are multipotent. They can produce many types of differentiated cells.Adult stem cells of a given organ or tissue typically produce only the types of cells that are unique to that tissue.
15 Potential BenefitsStem cell research may lead to new ways to repair the cellular damage that results from heart attack, stroke, and spinal cord injuries.@One example is the approach to reversing heart attack damage illustrated