3 Test your grammarWhich words can complete the expressions of quantity?a few cars/ traffic/ hold-ups/ pollutionnot many crimes/ criminals/ violence/ accidentsseveral times/ letters/ paper/ roomsvery little time/ room/ hope/ spacesnot much jobs/ unemployment/ work/ experience
4 Test your grammarWhich words can complete the expressions of quantity?a bit of luck/ opportunity/ fun/ helpa lot of enthusiasm/ energy/ people/ ingredientsenough chairs/ food/ herbs/ cutleryplenty of fresh air/ fluids/ sleep/ walkshardly any money/ experience / clothes/ friends
6 QuantifiersExamplesHe has made five TV series, written several books, and still does around twenty live shows a year.“A little bit of luck, a little bit of passion, and a little bit of knowledge!”
7 Quantifiers The following can be used before a noun: some/any much/manyeach/everymore/mosta little/littlea few/fewbothfewer/lessseveralall/noenough
8 Quantifiers each every + singular countable noun many few/ fewer severalbothplural countable nounmuchlittle/ lessuncountable nounsomeanymore/ mostallnoenoughcountable/ uncountable noun
9 Quantifiers (not) many cigarettes a few cars very few trees fewer booksseveral answersboth parentseach boyevery time(not) much lucka little cheesevery little experienceless timesome moneysome eggs(not) any water(not) any friendsmore/ most winemore/most peopleall/no workall/no childrenenough foodenough apples
10 Notes1. Most of the Quantifiers can be used without a noun. No, all, very and each cannot. Examples _ Have you got any money? Not much./ A little. _ Are there any eggs? A few./ Not many. _ Have some wine. I don’t want any. _ How many people came? Very few. _ Have some more tea. I’ve got some.
11 Notes2. Most of the Quantifiers can be used with of + the/my/those/… + noun. No and every cannot. Examples _ They took all of my money. _ Take a few of these tablets. _ Some of the people at the party started dancing.
12 Notes3. For no and every, we use none, every one or all: Examples _ None of the audience was listening. _ All of the hotels were booked.no noneevery every one/all
13 Notes Formal English: none + singular form of verb. 4. Formal/ InformalFormal English: none + singular form of verb._ None of the guests has arrived yet.Informal English: none + singular/ plural form of verb._ None of my friends smoke.
15 some, any, somebody, anything some and its compounds are used in affirmative sentences.any and its compounds are used in negative sentences and questions.Examples:I need some help.I need somebody to help me.I don’t need any shopping.We can’t go anywhere in this whether.
16 some, any, somebody, anything some and its compounds are used in request, invitations, or when we expect the answer “yes”.Examples:Have you got some money you could lend me?Would you like something to eat?Did someone phone me last night?
17 some, any, somebody, anything any and its compounds are used in affirmative sentences that have a negative meaning.Examples:He never has any money.You made hardly any mistakes.I made the cake myself without any help.
18 some, any, somebody, anything any and its compounds are used to express It doesn’t matter which/who/where.Examples:Take any book you like. I don’t mind.Anyone will tell you 2 and 2 makes 4.Sit anywhere you like.
20 nobody, no one, no where, nothing These are more emphatic forms.Examples:I saw nobody all weekend.I have eaten nothing all day.
21 nobody, no one, no where, nothing They can be used at the beginning of sentences.Examples:No one was saved.Nobody understands me.Nowhere was safe anymore.
22 Much, many, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a large number of, plenty of
23 much, many, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a large number of, plenty of much and many are usually used in questions and negatives.Examples:How much does it cost?How many people came to the party?I don’t have much money.You don’t see many snakes in England.
24 much, many, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a large number of, plenty of We find much and many in affirmative sentences after so, as and too.Examples:He has so much money that he doesn’t know what to do with it.She hasn’t got as many friends as I have.You made too many mistakes.
25 In affirmative sentences, the following forms are found: much, many, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a large number of, plenty ofIn affirmative sentences, the following forms are found:Plenty ofLots ofA lot ofA great deal ofA large number ofManymuch
26 much, many, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a large number of, plenty of Spoken/InformalThere will be plenty of food/people. (uncountable and countable)We’ve got lots of time/friends. (uncountable and countable)I’ve lost a lot of furniture/things. (uncountable and countable)Written/More formalA great deal of money was lost during the strike. (uncountable)A large number of strikes are caused by bad management.(countable)Many word leaders are quite young. (countable)Much time is wasted in trivial pursuits. (countable)
27 much, many, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a large number of, plenty of These forms are found without nouns:_ Have you got enough socks?_Lots._ How many people were there?_ A lot._ Don’t worry about food. We’ve got plenty.
29 little, few, less, fewerA little and a few express a small amount or number in a positive way. Although there is only a little, it is probably enough.Can you lend me a little sugar?A few friends are coming round tonight.
30 little, few, less, fewerFew and little express a small amount or number in a negative way. There is not enough.Very few people passed the exam.There is very little milk left.
31 little, few, less, fewer Comparative: few fewer little less Fewer people go to church these day. (countable noun)I spend less and less time doing what I want to. (uncountable noun)
33 allWe do not usually use all to mean everybody/ everyone/ everything. But if all is followed by a relative clause, it can mean everything.All (that) I have is yours.I spend all I earn.This structure can have a negative meaning, expressing ideas such as nothing more or only this.All I want is a place to sleep.All I have is a couple f beers.
34 all Before a noun with a determiner, both all and all of are possible. You eat all (of) the time.All (of) my friends are coming tonight.Before a noun with no determiner, we use all.All people are born equal.
35 all With personal pronouns, we use all of. All of you passed. Well done!I don’t need these books. You can have all of them.
36 Thank you for your attention! Move to PRACTICE and see how much you have learnt!