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Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 CHAPTER 1: BASIC CONCEPTS OF BEHAVIOR AND BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 CHAPTER OVERVIEW Understanding why individuals behave the way they do and how behavior may be learned, changed, or modified is the primary concern of this text. In this chapter some underlying assumptions, basic concepts, myths and misconceptions, and historical foundations of the study of behavior and behavior management are addressed.
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Historical Foundations to Understanding Behavior and Behavior Analysis A.Classical conditioning 1. Ivan P. Pavlov: The father of classical conditioning 2. John B. Watson: The father of behaviorism B.Operant conditioning 1. What happens prior to the behavior? 2. What happens after the behavior? 3. Edward L. Thorndike: The laws of behavior 4. Burrus Frederic Skinner: The father of operant conditioning C.The behavioral versus psychoanalytic approach D.Social learning theory 1. Albert Bandura: The father of social learning theory E.Behavior therapy 1. Systematic desensitization 2. Modeling 3. Biofeedback F.Applied behavior analysis 1. Ivar Lovass: The father of applied behavior analysis II. Basic Concepts of Behavior and Behavior Management A. Behavior B.Responses C.Stimuli D.Antecedents E.Reinforcement F.Punishment G.Prompts and cues 1. Natural prompts 2. Verbal prompts 3. Gestural prompts 4. Modeling prompts 5. Physical prompts
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 CHAPTER OUTLINE III. Basic Assumptions About Behavior and Behavior Management A. Most behaviors are learned B. Most behaviors are stimulus-specific C. Most behaviors can be taught, changed or modified D. Behavior change goals should be specific and clearly defined E. Behavior change programs should be individualized F. Behavior change programs should focus on the here and now Myths and Misconceptions About Behavior and Behavior Management A.Myth:Changing another person’s behavior is coercive B.Myth: The use of reinforcement to change behavior is a form of bribery C.Myth: Children will learn to behave appropriately only for reinforcement D.Myth: Children should “work” for intrinsic reinforcers E.Myth: All children should be treated in the same way
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 CHAPTER SUMMARY Classical conditioning refers to the relationship between various environmental stimuli and reflex responses. Classical conditioning was initially promoted by Pavlov, who demonstrated that he could condition a response (salivation) in a dog at the sound of a bell (conditioned stimulus). Today, our understanding of learning has expanded beyond the simple relationship of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. However, the work of Pavlov, Watson (1919), and others has provided a firm foundation for many current intervention strategies. Operant conditioning describes the relationship between environmental events and behavior. Antecedent events occur prior to the target behavior. Consequent events occur after a target behavior. A consequent event is considered a reinforcer if the preceding behavior increases or is maintained. A consequent event is defined as a punisher if the preceding behavior decreases in rate, duration, or intensity. Operant conditioning has its roots in the animal research conducted by Thorndike (1905, 1911) and Skinner (1938, 1953). Thorndike demonstrated the relationship between reinforcement and rates of learning. Skinner, whose name is synonymous with operant conditioning and behavior modification, helped clarify the differences between operant conditioning and classical conditioning. He encouraged researchers to study observable behavior and promoted the use of valid and reliable scientific methods of behavioral research. The primary differences between the behavioral and psychoanalytic approaches include the focus on overt rather than covert behaviors, a different understanding of inappropriate behavior, a different approach to assessment, and a different understanding of the importance of environmental and psychological influences on behavior. The behavioral approach provides teachers and parents with direct applications for classroom and home settings. Social learning theory expands the behavioral model and stresses the interdependence and integration of internal variables (thoughts and feelings) with environmental factors. The role of modeling, for example, was researched by Bandura (1977) as a significant learning tool. Behavior therapy is considered a modern, practical application of classical conditioning involving several treatment strategies. These strategies include systematic desensitization, flooding, aversion therapy, covert conditioning, modeling, and biofeedback. Wolpe (1958) used systematic desensitization as an anxiety-reducing procedure. Applied behavior analysis expanded laboratory principles of operant conditioning to everyday situations and settings. Baer et al. (1968, 1987) state that applied behavior analysis ought to be applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective, and capable of generalized outcomes. The basic concepts of behavior management include behavior, responses, stimuli, antecedents, consequences, reinforcement, punishment, and prompts and cues. Prompts may be natural, verbal, gestural, modeling, or physical. Behaviorists believe that most behaviors are learned, behaviors are stimulus-specific, and behaviors can be taught and modified. Behavioral interventions focus on individualized programming, interventions for the here and now, and goals that are specific and clearly defined. Many myths and misconceptions exist concerning behavior management techniques. These have developed over a long history of abusive interventions with a focus on punishment. The perception of punishment as the primary strategy of behavior management has led to negative reactions, even among professionals. Others believe that changing another person’s behavior is coercive, the use of reinforcement is a form of bribery, and children should work for intrinsic, not extrinsic, reinforcers. Current behavioral interventions, however, stress the reinforcement of appropriate behavior and focus less on the modification of inappropriate behavior directly.
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FROM TEXT 1.What are the differences between classical and operant conditioning? Provide examples of each as observed in everyday situations. 2.Describe the primary differences between the psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches to understanding behavior. Which do you think is more applicable to the classroom setting and more functional for the classroom teacher? 3.Discuss and give examples of how some of the treatment strategies in behavior therapy are related to classical conditioning. 4.Discuss the treatment strategies frequently associated with behavior therapy. Could any of the treatment strategies be applied to the classroom setting? How? 5.Discuss the relationship among antecedents, behavior, and consequences in operant conditioning. Give examples of this relationship as observed in everyday experiences. 6. List and give examples of the different types of prompts and cures that may be used as antecedent stimuli to teach new behaviors. 7. Discuss the basic concepts of behavior and behavior management as outlined in the chapter. 8. What is behaviorism?
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing only observable and measurable behaviors for planning behavioral interventions within the classroom. 2.How does social learning theory differ from Skinner’s operant conditioning model? 3.List and discuss the major assumptions of behavior modification. 4.List five myths and misconceptions concerning behavior modification. Prepare and discuss a rebuttal for each myth/misconception listed.
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