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Basic Concepts of Behavior and Behavior Management

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1 Basic Concepts of Behavior and Behavior Management
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Behavior and Behavior Management

2 Historical Foundations I
Classical conditioning (Pavlov) the relationship between stimuli and respondent behavior responses. Operant conditioning (Skinner) the relationship between overt events in the environment and changes in specific target behaviors. These events are classified as either antecedents or consequences

3 Historical Foundations II
Social Learning Theory (Bandura) classical and operant conditioning principles, child’s social environment and cognitive development Behavior Therapy (Wolpe) practical application of classical conditioning: systematic desensitization, modeling, biofeedback Applied Behavioral Analysis ( Lovass) direct application of behavior change principles in everyday settings

4 Basic Concepts I Behavior – overt responses that are observable & measurable Covert responses – feelings and emotions Stimuli – events or activities within an environment that form a relationship with a behavior

5 Basic Concepts II Antecedents – stimuli that occur prior to behaviors
Consequences – events or changes in the environment following a target behavior

6 A-B-C ’s of Behavior “When happens, the student (antecedent)
does , in order to .” (behavior) (consequence/function)

7 Basic Concepts III Reinforcement – type of stimulus that affects preceding behaviors and may: Maintain rate, duration, or intensity Raise probability a response will occur Increase future rate, duration, or intensity Strengthen a weak response

8 Basic Concepts IV Punishment – type of stimulus that affects preceding behavior by: Decreasing probability Decrease/eliminate rate, duration, or intensity Prompts & Cues – antecedent stimuli that produce a target behavior Different types: natural, verbal, gestural, modeling, physical

9 Basic Assumptions Most behavior(s): 1. Are learned
2. Are stimulus-specific 3. Can be taught, changed or modified Behavior Change programs should: 1. Be specific and clearly defined 2. Be individualized 3. Focus on the here and now 4. Focus on the child’s environment 5. Focus on reinforcement strategies and other positive behavior supports

10 Myths and Misconceptions
Myth: Changing another person’s behavior is coercive Myth: The use of reinforcement to change behavior is a form of bribery Myth: Children will learn to behave appropriately only for reinforcement Myth: Children should “work” for intrinsic reinforcers Myth: All children should be treated in the same way

11 Summary Classical and Operant conditioning are foundational theories for understanding behavior. The behavioral approach provides teachers and parents with direct applications for classroom and home settings. Social learning theory expands the behavioral model and stresses environmental factors. Basic concepts of behavior management include behavior, responses, stimuli, antecedents, consequences, reinforcement, punishment, and prompts and cues. Many myths and misconceptions exist concerning behavior management techniques.

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