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Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 CHAPTER 10: POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORTS: REINFORCEMENT STRATEGIES
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter discusses behavioral strategies to increase appropriate behaviors. Positive and negative reinforcement are discussed, as well as guidelines for establishing a reinforcement program. Included are the different schedules of reinforcement, differential reinforcement, shaping and chaining of behavior and finally generalization and maintenance of behavior is discussed.
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Introduction II. Reinforcement A.Definition 1.Types of reinforcement a. Positive reinforcement b.Negative reinforcement c.Primary reinforcers d.Secondary reinforcers e.Socially valid reinforcers f.Extrinsic vs. intrinsic reinforcers 2.Identify high-preferenced reinforcers III.Establishing An Effective Reinforcement Program A.Establishing clear rules and guidelines B.Teachers must set the example C.The delivery of reinforcers D.Preventing reinforcement satiation IV.Schedules of Reinforcement A. Ratio reinforcement schedules 1.Fixed ratio schedules 2.Variable ratio schedules B.Interval reinforcement schedules 1.Fixed interval schedules 2.Variable interval schedules
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 CHAPTER OUTLINE V.Shaping and Chaining New Behaviors A.Shaping behaviors B.Chaining behaviors 1.Forward chaining 2.Backward chaining VI.Token Economy Reinforcement Programs A.Characteristics of tokens B.Establishing a token economy program VIIContingency Contracting A.Advantage of contracts VIII.Generalization A. Stimulus generalization B. Response generalization C. Promoting generalization of behavior change 1. Teaching in natural settings 2. Selecting natural antecedents for stimulus control 3. Selecting natural consequences as reinforcers 4. Reinforcing generalization IX. Maintenance A. Promoting the maintenance of behavior change
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 CHAPTER SUMMARY Reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will reoccur, or at least be maintained, at the current rate, duration, or intensity. Reinforcing appropriate behavior is the most effective method of increasing appropriate and decreasing inappropriate behaviors. Reinforcers may be tangible, social, or physical (activities). Primary reinforcers are naturally reinforcing, while secondary reinforcers are learned or conditioned through their association with primary reinforcers. Teachers must be sure that reinforcers are socially valid and age-appropriate. It is important that teachers identify effective reinforcers through preference and reinforcement assessments. High- preference reinforcers have been found to be more effective than low-preference reinforcers in behavior change programs. A reinforcement menu is a list of potential reinforcers that may be used for an individual student or a group of students to reinforce appropriate behavior. By having a variety of reinforcers to select from, students will not become satiated with a single reinforcer. Factors associated with effective reinforcement programs include the immediacy of presentation; consistency; pairing with verbal praise; schedule of presentation; and the type, quality, quantity, and presenter of the reinforcement to the student. Teachers are encouraged to establish clear rules and guidelines, model the target behavior, and consistently reinforce behaviors targeted for increase. Reinforcement may be delivered on a continuous or an intermittent schedule. A continuous schedule involves the delivery of reinforcement each and every time the target behavior is observed. When an intermittent schedule is employed, a student is reinforced after some occurrences, but not each one, of the target behavior. Reinforcement may also be delivered on a fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval schedule. Shaping refers to the reinforcement of successive approximations of a terminal behavior. It is generally used to teach new behaviors and skills. Chaining is the performance of a series or sequence of behaviors rather than of one behavior independently. Chaining may be presented in a forward or backward sequence. A token economy reinforcement program is a symbolic reinforcement system. Students are presented with tokens for objects or activities that are reinforcing. Tokens, which may take many forms, allow teachers to delay giving reinforcers during busy periods of the day and are effective with individuals or large groups of students. Establishing a token economy program includes identifying the target behavior, medium of exchange, price of each item on the reinforcement menu, and time when the students will exchange their tokens for reinforcers. Contingency contracting involves the development of a written agreement between a student and teacher(s) regarding the performance of target behaviors and the exchange of specific consequences. Contracts are highly recommended because they are easy to use in natural environments, do not restrict the student’s participation in educational activities, focus on the reinforcement of appropriate behaviors, outline behavioral expectations in writing, may be used with individuals or groups of students, and may be modified to meet the needs of different students and situations. Generalization refers to the degree to which a behavior change transfers to other settings, situations, or behaviors beyond the training environment. There are two types of generalization—stimulus and response. Stimulus generalization describes the degree of behavior change from training to other settings. Response generalization refers to the degree to which a behavior change program generalizes to other behaviors. Maintenance is the degree to which a behavior change is maintained over time after the completion of a behavior change program. Teachers may promote generalization and maintenance by teaching in natural environments, selecting natural antecedents for stimulus control, selecting natural consequences as reinforcers, shifting from continuous to intermittent schedules of reinforcement, introducing delays in reinforcement similar to the natural environment, and reinforcing generalization.
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FROM TEXT 1. What are the different types of reinforcement teachers may use in various environments (school, home, etc.) to increase appropriate behavior? 2. Describe the factors associated with the effective use of reinforcement. 3. List the different types of reinforcement schedules, and give examples of the use of each reinforcement schedule within a classroom environment. 4.Discuss the process of shaping new behaviors. Give an example of shaping a series of behaviors within a classroom setting. 5. What are the important elements of an effective contingency contracting program? Give examples of when contracts might be effective with the classroom settings. 6. What do we mean when we talk about program generalization and maintenance? How can they both be facilitated during and after a behavior management program?
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Attention to appropriate behavior increases the rate of appropriate behavior. What are the implications of this statement for classroom teachers, parents, and other caregivers? Discuss possible reasons for why this is done so infrequently in classrooms, in the home, etc. Discuss strategies that would assist parents, teachers, and caregivers to increase their rate of attention to appropriate behavior. 2. List and discuss the factors associated with the effective use of reinforcement. For each factor give an example of how this factor may be problematic for the classroom. 3. Discuss the social validity of reinforcers. What is a socially valid reinforcer? Give examples of situations that demonstrate the use of socially valid reinforcers, in contrast to situations in which reinforcers used may not be considered socially valid.
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5 th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Table 10.1Summary of Reinforcement Schedules FixedVariable RatioReinforcement is Reinforcement is delivered contingent delivered contingent on occurrences of the target behavior. a fixed number of occurrences of the target behavior. on an average number of IntervalReinforcement is Reinforcement is delivered after a fixeddelivered after an interval of time has average interval of time elapsed, contingent on has elapsed, contingent the occurrence of target behavior during on the occurrence of a the interval.target behavior during the interval.
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